Yaşar Demirel, Vincent Gerbaud, in Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics (Fourth Edition), 2019

2.4.6 estimate of viscosity of pure liquids

The kinetic theory of gases is far much more advanced 보다 that that liquids partly due to the fact that of complex and more powerful interactions among the molecules of liquids. We might estimate the viscosity that a pure fluid from the complying with relation based on the Eyring rate theory

where NA is Avogadro's number, h is Planck's continuous (h = 6.62 × 10−27 erg s), V is the molar volume, and ΔUv is the molar internal energy change at the boiling point of liquid at 1 atm Tb. Making use of the obtainable nomograph to calculation the liquid viscosity (Bird et al., 2002; Griskey, 2002) is additionally recommended.

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A. BERMAN, in total Pressure measurements in Vacuum Technology, 1985

7.5.1 The Physical communication of the pumping Mechanism

The kinetic concept of gases states that the time price of adjust of press p of suitable gas in a courage of volume V at continuous temperature, evacuated by a pump of consistent volumetric rate S = dV/dt, is

Here P0 is the pressure of the gas at t = 0 and also τk the time continuous of the gauge head (see section 2.3.6).Equation (7.12) stop true if


the gas does not connect with the walls of the vessel, yet is simply reflected indigenous them,


the gas is gotten rid of with constant efficiency,


there is no desorption of the gas within the volume V from the wall surfaces of the vessel or indigenous the pump.

The plot of (log P, t) the Eq. (7.12) is a straight line with continuous negative steep (I in Fig. 7.5). Together an “ideal” pump is not yet available, since, in practice, the over assumptions space not fulfilled because of operating conditions and also pump construction.

Fig. 7.5. The sport of press P v time created by suitable pump (I) and an ionization gauge head (II). Pe is the semiequilibrium push of the pump process.

The semilogarithmic plot that the press reduction through time developed by one ionization gauge head in a limited, close up door volume yields a curve of an adverse slope (II in Fig. 7.5). In ~ the beginning, the press decreases swiftly (region a), climate at a lower rate (region b), to reach a quasi-equilibrium value Pe. The slope of the curve, which is proportional to the volume price of flow of gas, varies continuously, hence indicating that the gauge head clears gas in ~ a nonconstant pumping speed. The rapid decrease that the push in an ar a argues that at the broken line in Fig. 7.5 saturation in pump is reached, conversely, the advancement of the press in region b is likely to be the an outcome of a dynamic equilibrium between the gas removed and also some other resource of gas. The obvious failure that Eq. (7.12) to predict the form of the plot results from the distinction in the principles of gas pumping by a mechanically pump and also an ionization gauge head. Under suitable conditions the gas removed by a mechanical pump never returns, theoretically, to the volume indigenous which it has actually been evacuated. With an ionization gauge head, gas is trapped and stored in the really volume wherein the activating electric discharge occurs. Because the capacity of the gauge head because that these two procedures is limited, some of the save gas is returned to the gas phase. This explains the continuously changing slope of curve II in Fig. 7.5.

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The gas kinetics the the sorption−desorption procedures in one ionization gauge head are managed by mechanisms regarded each other in a facility way. In taking care of these processes some workers have actually interchangeably offered the terms “sticking,” “entrapment,” and also “sorption,” regardless of the differences in their physical meaning. Also “re-emission” and “desorption” have alternatively been offered to point out the procedure by i beg your pardon gas or vapor is set cost-free from the heavy surfaces whereby it has temporarily to be stored.