1Department that Biology, college of Natural and also Computational Sciences, Raya University, P.O. Crate 92, Maichew, Ethiopia

2Department the Biology, college of Natural and also Computational Sciences, Debre Berhan University, P.O. Box 445, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia


Abstract

Primates room the mammals that the bespeak Primate that is identified by advanced advancement of binocular vision and enlargement of the cerebral hemispheres. The target of this examine was to investigate the abundance, diversity, and distribution that primates ~ above Welel Mountain. From respectable 2017 come February 2018, we collected data from various parts the Welel Mountain throughout wet and also dry seasons of the year and analyzed them using SPSS variation 20. We figured out four primate species: Chlorocebus aethiops, Cercopithecus mitis, Papio anubis, and Colobus guereza. We performed t-test analysis for abundance and distribution that primates in wet and also dry season that the year, and also the p value acquired was 0.20. The median percentages that primates in forest, woodland, and also shrubs were 43.16%, 32.26%, and also 24.58%, respectively. Shannon-Wiener diversity table of contents (H′) worth was higher in wet season 보다 in dried season. The current study confirmed that the varieties are distributed an ext evenly in wet season 보다 in dried season, and also the number of young people is an ext than that of adults. This indicates that currently the status of primates populace on Welel mountain is good. Therefore, to keep the status of primates in the study area effective, wildlife management and conservation policy should be formulated.

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1. Introduction

Primates are not evenly distributed across the globe and within the regions and vary substantially from time to time because of several factors. Thus, the study of the abundance, diversity, and also spatial circulation of organisms and an in similar way an knowledge of the straightforward quantitative natural history of primate types are an essential to your conservation <1>. Primates occurred from ancestors that lived in the tree of dry forests; countless primate attributes represent adaptations to life in the difficult three-dimensional setting <2>.

Africa is a continent of particular concern in terms of worldwide primate conservation for many reasons. Firstly, that harbors a high primate diversity—at least 64 species are recognized: 15 prosimians, 46 monkeys, and also 3 apes <3>, representing roughly 30% that extant primate species. Amongst fifteen countries global scoring greatest for primate types richness, nine room in Africa, making up Cameroon, autonomous Republic that Congo (DRC), Nigeria, peoples Republic the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, and central African Republic <4>. Secondly, in history African forests have been highly dynamic, experiencing several cycles that expansion, and in countless regions forests have persisted in fragmented kind <5>. Large‐scale, historical processes (e.g., speciation, extinction, and also dispersal) have actually been important in shaping the existing patterns that primate distribution on the continent <6>.

Primate habitats span a range of altitudes. Because that example, the Rhinopithecus bieti has been uncovered living in the Hengduan mountains at altitudes of 4,700 m <7>, the Gorilla beringei beringei deserve to be found at 4,200 m cross the Virunga Mountains, and the Theropithecus gelada has actually been uncovered at elevations of as much as 5,000 m in the Ethiopian Highlands. The diversification of types is largely affected by the conditions at the origin, and during the subsequent background of the clade <8>, the conditions currently linked with greater levels of species richness can hint at the main eco-friendly axis determining the distribution and also diversification of the clade. In addition, modern conditions and events such together anthropogenic changes in habitat and also climate continue to influence types diversity by removing varieties from some locations and including them to others <9>.

Accounting because that 25% to 40% the the fruit-eating animals (by weight) in ~ tropical rain forests, primates play critical ecological role by dispersing seeds of countless tree types <10>. Africa is a continent of particular concern in state of an international primate conservation, because that a variety of factors <11>. Among fifteen countries global scoring highest for primate types richness, nine space in Africa <12>.

Globally, primate populations are gift dramatically affected by activities such together logging, deforestation, hunting, and also other such factors. Together a result, wild populations of many nonhuman primates (NHPs) space decreasing anywhere the world and many thousands of primates room killed every year for various purposes <13>. The target of this study was identify diversity, abundance, and also distribution the primates on Welel Mountain and also formulating effective and also realistic monitoring policy to control illegal activities.

2. Methods2.1. Research Site

We carried out this examine on Welel Mountain, Oromia Region, Ethiopia, positioned 650 Km away from Addis Ababa come the west (see figure 1). The area is located in between 8° 5′–8° 8′ N latitude and 34° 5′–34°8′ E longitude. The altitude the the mountain is 3301 above sea level. The area receives end 3500 mm average annual rainfall <14>. The typical minimum and also maximum temperature that the research area room 4°C and also 20°C, respectively.


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Welel hill forest consists of diverse tree species. That harbors plant from lower level to huge trees. Several of the plants space Cordia africana, Ficus sur, Juniperus procera, Teclea nobilis, Grevillea robusta, Senecio gigas, Maesa lanceolata, Vepris dainellii, Croton macrostachys, Prunus africana, Arundinaria alpine, Vernonia myriantha, Dombeya torrid, Bersama abyssinica, Landolphia buchananii, and also many much more plants. The following huge mammal types are known to happen in the research area: Tragelaphus scriptus, Crocuta crocuta, Colobus guereza, Papio anubis, Chlorocebus aethiops, Potamochoerus larvatus, Panthera pardus, Xerus spp., Sylvicapra grimmia, Orycteropus afer, Cercopithecus mitis, Leptailurus serval, Civettictis civetta, Hystrix cristata, and others. In addition, the area consists of many birds, amphibians, and also reptiles.

2.2. Data repertoire Methods

Firstly, the physical atmosphere of the examine area was observed, and preliminary surveys were made v local field assistants and the residents about the area who understand the most usual places whereby primates room found. Then, simple information around temperature, vegetation, and also fauna that the examine area to be gathered. The data collection was performed on Welel hill from august 2017 come February 2018 in wetland dried season. The wet season study had August 2017 to November 2017 and also the dried season one contained December 2017 to February 2018.

Data collection approaches such as interviews, straight observations aided by naked eye and also binocular (7 × 50 mm), and camera traps (Canon camera Eos 5d) were offered to conduct the current study. In the research site, counting of the populace of primates was carried out using straight observation while relocating on foot transparent the entirety study website (three habitat types) i m sorry were separated into blocks before the counting of population. Primates in the area to be counted by separating the forest into blocks and each block to be sampled by line transects <15>.

Then the counting of primates checked out from the transect lines continued and the primate seen in lock was tape-recorded <16>. Thirty transect lines were established, v 14 for riverine forest, 10 for woodland, 6 for shrub habitats depending upon the area cover of every habitat. In riverine forest transect size of 2 km and also width of 100 m, in woodland transect size of 2.5 km and also width of 100 m, and in shrub transect length of 1.5 km and also width the 100 m were used. Each transect in every habitat type was surveyed when every 2 month for 6 months (August 2017 come February 2018). Transects in every habitat to be surveyed at the same time every morning and also late afternoon at the time when most primates are energetic and have great visibility <14, 17>.

These tasks were excellent repeatedly throughout dry and also wet season, and also the primate’s census was lugged out five days per month for both wet and dry seasons. Then, primate’s populace was categorized into various age groups, namely, adult, subadult, and infant (juvenile); body size was offered in age determination. Photographs the the primates to be taken by means of digital camera, and the place at which they were counted was recorded. Monitoring was make by naked eye and also by use of binocular. Then, the figured out primates to be counted and also grouped as common (if probability of seeing is 100% in every time of field work), unusual (if probability of seeing is > 50), and also rare (if probability of seeing is 18>. Shannon-Wiener index (H′) i m sorry is offered in the adhering to formula was supplied to compare primates’ diversity and also similarity among habitats species and seasons, dong <14, 19>:where H′ denotes the diversity indices and also pi = number of individuals of species/total number of samples = number of varieties or varieties richness. Loved one abundance is calculate by dividing the number of individuals that a varieties by the total variety of individuals of all species.

Data were gathered from different parts that Welel hill in wet and also dry season that the year, and constant field surveys were conducted during the ar work period (covering numerous sites top top Welel Mountain). The photo files and also pictures were taken through digital camera. Furthermore, audio documents were taped using a sound recorder; human being were permitted to hear to sound recordings of primate species, and open-ended inquiries were in addition formulated so that the respondents were able come tell us about the varieties and anything that they thought was beneficial information.

2.3. Data Analysis

Statistical Package for Social scientific researches (SPSS) version 20.0 (computer software application for Windows, evaluation version program) and Microsoft Excel spreadsheets were offered to analyze the data built up during the survey. One-way ANOVA was supplied to to compare the relative abundance and also distribution the primates in each habitat at 5% level the significance.

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3. Results3.1. Primate types Identified in different Habitats the Welel Mountain

A total of 4 species of primates, namely, Chlorocebus aethiops, Cercopithecus mitis, Papio anubis, and Colobus guereza, were observed in ~ Welel hill through direct and indirect observations. Backwoods habitat incorporated 66, 107, 5, and 121 individuals of Colobus guereza, Chlorocebus aethiops, Cercopithecus mitis, and also Papio anubis, respectively, in wet season and also 68, 115, 6, and also 146 people of Colobus guereza, Chlorocebus aethiops, Cercopithecus mitis, and also Papio anubis, respectively, in dry season. Riverine forest had 86, 176, 8, and also 204 people of Colobus guereza, Chlorocebus aethiops, Cercopithecus mitis, and Papio anubis, respectively, in dried season and 82, 154, 7, and 131 people of Colobus guereza, Chlorocebus aethiops, Cercopithecus mitis, and Papio anubis, respectively, in wet season whereas. Shrub floor is inhabited by 61 Colobus guereza, 92 Chlorocebus aethiops, no Cercopithecus mitis, and 97 Papio anubis individuals throughout the dry season and 56 Colobus guereza, 89 Chlorocebus aethiops, no Cercopithecus mitis, and 88 Papio anubis individuals in wet season (see numbers 2 and 3).