Fought ~ above 15 April 1450, the battle of Formigny destroyed the critical English field force in Lancastrian NORMANDY and thereby guarantee the French reconquest the the duchy.
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In June 1449, 3 months after ~ the English sack of FOUGĖRES, CHARLES VII repudiated the Truce the TOURS and also reopened the hundred years WAR by invading Normandy. Due to the fact that the English had actually no field military in the duchy, the project quickly ended up being a collection of sieges; ROUEN capitulated in October and HARFLEUR complied with in December. Come halt the French advance, the federal government of HENRY using dispatched an military of twenty-five hundred men to Normandy under Sir cutting board Kyriell. Landing at Cherbourg on 15 in march 1450, Kyriell, acting at the request of local officials, deviated indigenous his orders come proceed immediately to the relief of Bayeux. Instead, he asked Edmund BEAUFORT, duke of Somerset, the English branch of Normandy, for reinforcements come recapture Valognes, which fell on 10 April. Now commanding an army of 4 thousand, Kyriell marched towards Bayeux, reaching the town of Formigny on 14 April.
The French had actually two pressures in western Normandy. John, count of Clermont, commanded three thousand men at Carentan, when Arthur de Richemont, constable of France, place twenty miles to the southwest at Coutances through two thousands Bretons. Unwilling to connect the larger English pressure alone, Clermont enabled Kyriell to proceed unmolested when Richemont marched phibìc to St. Lô , i beg your pardon he got to on 14 April. In ~ Formigny, the English were just ten miles from the safety of Bayeux, yet instead that resuming his march, Kyriell organized his position, presumably waiting to catch Clermont, whom he knew come be finally on the move. Unaware the Richemont’s march of the ahead day, Kyriell most likely hoped to engage and defeat Clermont before Richemont arrived.
At mid-afternoon, Clermont encountered the English military drawn up lot as HENRY V’s had been at AGINCOURT, with a slim line that men-at-arms strengthened at intervals by teams of ARCHERS that projected forward from the English front. Part 75 percent of the English troops to be longbowmen. They took positions behind a chop of Spanish riders, backed by a small creek. After a stop that allowed the English to further entrench your position, Clermont’s dismounted men-at-arms struck the English line. When their very first attack collapsed, the French sent cavalry charges against the English flanks, but were again unsuccessful. Clermont then lugged forward 2 long-range coulverines on rolled carriages, enfilading the English line. These guns fired into the dense pack of archers, the end of range of return longbow fire but with a rate of fire and also accuracy that their very own rapid enough to tell heavily versus limbs and lives. In desperation, the longbowmen charged and overran the coulverines. Yet terrible casualties had been inflicted and the French had other cannon with which to pound the English position. The French were currently in disarray; had Kyriell attacked, he could have pushed them native the field.
At this moment, Richemont come from the south, his forces ideally positioned to attack the flanks and rear of the English army. The second French military now attacked; 1,200 steed trailed by 800 crossbowmen. This reinforcements compelled English survivors into a defensive arc so dense that it inhibited shoot by numerous longbowmen, if the French struck from two directions in ~ once. Doing not have a reserve, Kyriell had actually to keep his front against Clermont when shifting component of his military to the left to satisfy Richemont’s attack, the sight of which motivated Clermont’s males to resume your assault. The English heat quickly broke down under the pressure, with teams of men being surrounded and cut down. Although sir Matthew Gough, command of Somerset’s reinforcements, led a little force to safety, many of the English military was killed or captured, through Kyriell among the latter. The English line broke down under extreme crossbow and gun fire; the entirety English army was killed, captured, or fled the field (the last ran all the way to Caen) in utter panic. Having actually disposed the Kyriell’s army, the French resumed their campaign of sieges, which concluded on 12 August through the loss of Cherbourg, the last English-held fortress in Normandy.
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Further Reading: Burne, Alfred H. The Agincourt War. Ware, England: Wordsworth version Ltd., 1999; Griffiths, Ralph A. The regime of King Henry VI.