Charles I was born in Fife on 19 November 1600, the second boy of James VI of Scotland and also Anne of Denmark. On the death of Elizabeth I in 1603 James became king of England also and also Ireland. Charles"s well-known older brother Henry, whom he adored, passed away in 1612 leaving Charles as heir, and in 1625 he ended up being king. Three months after his accession he married Henrietta Maria of France. They had a happy marital relationship and left five making it through youngsters.
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Charles"s reign started via an unfamous friendship with George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, that offered his influence against the wishes of other nobility. Buckingham was assassinated in 1628. Tbelow was recurring anxiety via parliament over money - made worse by the costs of war awide. In addition, Charles favoured a High Anglican form of worship, and also his wife was Catholic - both made many kind of of his subjects suspicious, specifically the Puritans. Charles liquified parliament 3 times in between 1625 and 1629. In 1629, he dismissed parliament and also refixed to ascendancy alone. This forced him to raise revenue by non-parliamentary suggests which made him increasingly unrenowned. At the very same time, tbelow was a crackdvery own on Puritans and also Catholics and also many type of emoved to the Amerideserve to nests.
Unrest in Scotland also - because Charles attempted to pressure a new prayer book on the country - put an end to his personal dominance. He was required to call parliament to attain funds to fight the Scots. In November 1641, tensions were raised even additionally via arguments over who need to command also an army to suppress an uprising in Ireland. Charles attempted to have 5 members of parliament arrested and also in August 1642, elevated the royal standard at Nottingham. Civil war started.
The Royalists were defeated in 1645-1646 by a combination of parliament"s alliance through the Scots and also the development of the New Model Army. In 1646, Charles surrendered to the Scots, that handed him over to parliament. He escaped to the Isle of Wight in 1647 and encouraged discontented Scots to invade. This "Second Civil War" was over within a year with an additional royalist defeat by Parliamentarian basic Oliver Cromwell.
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Convinced that there would certainly never before be tranquility while the king lived, a rump of radical MPs, consisting of Cromwell, put him on trial for tfactor. He was discovered guilty and also executed on 30 January 1649 external the Banqueting House on Whitehall, London.