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Born:83 BCEancient Rome...(Show more)Died:August 30 BCEAlexandriaEgypt...(Show more)Notable household Members:spouse Cleopatraspouse Fulviaspouse Octaviason Ptolemy Philadelphus...(Show more)Role In:Battle the PharsalusBattle that Philippi...(Show more)

Mark Antony to be a Roman basic underJulius Caesarand later triumvir who ruled Rome’s eastern provinces (43–30BCE). He was the lover ofCleopatra, queen that Egypt, and also was beat by Octavian (the future emperorAugustus) in the last of the civil battles that ruined theRoman Republic.

Mark Antonywas the son and also grandson of men of the exact same name. His dad was referred to as Creticus because of his armed forces operations in Crete. His grandfather, one of the top orators of his day, was a consul and censor who was vividly shown as a speaker inCicero’sDe oratore(55).

Mark Antony offered with difference as a cavalry commander inJudaeaandEgypt. He then joined the employee ofJulius Caesar. When the civil War damaged out betweenPompeyand Caesar, Antony was tribune that theplebsand sustained Caesar. After Caesar’s assassination, he ended up being a triumvir and gained control of Rome’s east provinces.

Mark Antony and Cleopatra to be partners because that 11 years and had three kids together. Apart from your undoubted common affection, their alliance was politically useful. Cleopatra required Antony come revive the old borders of her kingdom, and also Antony neededEgyptas a resource of supplies and funds.

Mark Antony to be at war through Octavian for regulate of the roman world, i beg your pardon he lost at the battle of Actium (September 2, 31BC). When Octavian’s fleet gained the upper hand, Cleopatra went back to Alexandria. Antony joined her there. Once Octavian arrived in Alexandria (summer 30), very first Antony and also then Cleopatra committedsuicide.

Mark Antony, Latin Marcus Antonius, (born 83—died August, 30 bce, Alexandria, Egypt), Roman basic under Julius Caesar and also later triumvir (43–30 bce), who, through Cleopatra, queen the Egypt, was defeated by Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) in the critical of the civil battles that damaged the roman Republic.

Early life and also career

Mark Antony to be the son and grandson of males of the exact same name. His father was referred to as Creticus since of his military operations in Crete; his grandfather, among the leading orators of his day, was a consul and censor that was vividly shown as a speak in Cicero’s De oratore (55). After a rather dissipated youth, the future triumvir served with distinction in 57–55 together a mounties commander under Aulus Gabinius in Judaea and Egypt. He then joined the employee of Julius Caesar, to who he was related on his mom side, and also served through him for much of the concluding phase of Caesar’s conquest of central and northern Gaul and also its aftermath (54–53 and also 52–50). In 52 Antony organized the office of quaestor, an office of financial management that provided him a lifetime place in the Senate. In 50 he was chosen to the politically significant priesthood that the augurs, beating Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus.

Civil war and triumvirate

In 49, the year the civil War damaged out in between Pompey and Caesar, Antony was tribune the the plebs and also vigorously sustained Caesar. The fled from Rome come Caesar’s headquarters ~ receiving dangers of violence. Antony combated in the quick Italian campaign that required Pompey to evacuate the Italian peninsula. After this Caesar left the in fee of Italy during the Spanish campaign. He climate joined Caesar in Greece, commanded his left wing in the fight of Pharsalus, and also was sent back as understand of the steed (a dictator’s second-in-command) in 48 to save order in Italy. The failed to do this and also was most likely removed from his write-up in 47; he to be without employment until 44, when he became consul together colleague and also later priest (flamen) the Caesar. As consul and also lupercus, one of the celebrants that the festival that the Lupercalia (a fertility festival beforehand in the year), he offered Caesar a diadem—a ribbon signifying royalty—which Caesar, pressured by the citizens’ open up distaste for monarchy, refuse to accept.

After Caesar’s murder, Antony gained possession the the treasury and also of Caesar’s papers, i m sorry he provided (and possibly supplemented) to his own advantage. For a time he pursued a middle policy, however when challenged by the 19-year-old Octavian (later the emperor Augustus), Caesar’s embraced son and also heir, the turned against Caesar’s assassins. In June 44 the Senate granted him north and central Gaul and also northern Italy together his province for five years. Cicero, however, fiercely assaulted him in the Philippic orations between September 44 and April 43, and Octavian joined forces with the consuls in 43. Their an unified forces twice beat Antony, who was besieging Brutus Albinus at Mutina (present-day Modena). Antony regulated to withdraw into southern Gaul. The opposing armies broke increase after the deaths that both consuls, and Antony was joined by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and also Lucius Munatius Plancus with their armies. In early November, Octavian—at this point leading the consular armies—met Antony and also Lepidus in Bononia (present-day Bologna). The three gone into into a five-year pact, soon validated by a law, conferring on lock a joint autocracy, the triumvirate. An ext than 200 guys were proscribed and (when captured) eliminated (Cicero was one of them), either since they were enemies of the triumvirs or in order to confiscate your wealth. In 42 Gaius Cassius and Marcus Brutus, defeated in two battles at Philippi (Macedonia) in which Antony differentiated himself together commander, killed themselves and, v these acts, the republican cause.

The triumvirs had actually agreed to divide the empire, therefore Antony behavior to take up the management of the east provinces. He an initial summoned Cleopatra, the queen of Egypt, come Tarsus (southeastern Asia Minor) come answer reports the she had assisted your enemies. She successfully exonerated herself, and also Antony spent the winter the 41–40 together her lover in ~ Alexandria, Egypt. Despite the romantic account of ancient authors, however, he made no relocate to see her again for more than 3 years, although he substantially increased her territorial possessions throughout that interval.

Early in 40 Antony’s brother, the consul Lucius Antonius, sustained by Antony’s wife, Fulvia, rebelled versus Octavian in Italy. Octavian defeated the rebellion, capturing and destroying Perusia (present-day Perugia). Antony had actually to go back to Italy, leaving his general Ventidius to attend to a Parthian intrusion of Asia Minor and also Syria. After ~ initial skirmishes, Antony and Octavian were reconciled at Brundisium (present-day Brindisi) and, due to the fact that Fulvia had passed away in the meantime, Antony married Octavian’s sister, Octavia. The 2 men separated the empire between them, Octavian taking everything west of Scodra (present-day Shkodër, Alb.) and Antony whatever east. Lepidus, who had previously been confined come Africa, was allowed to save it. In 39 Antony and also Octavian finish a treaty through Sextus Pompeius (see Pompeius Magnus Pius, Sextus), who controlled the seas and had been blockading Italy.

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Antony and Octavia checked out Athens, where they to be deified; Antony was claimed the brand-new Dionysus, mystic god that wine, happiness, and immortality. Antony then organized the East. Ventidius, meanwhile, thrust the Parthians the end of Asia minor in 40 and drove them ago beyond the Euphrates river (39–38). Herod—the son of a influential Palestinian Jewish friend of Rome, Antipater—was set up in Jerusalem together king that Judaea in 37. When Octavian had problems in Italy and the West in 37, Antony met him at Tarentum, provided him with ships, and agreed to renew the triumvirate for another five years. Lepidus was perhaps not included. In 36 Octavian’s basic Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa defeated Sextus Pompeius. Then Lepidus and also Octavian annexed Africa. Octavia, having been in Rome due to the fact that 37, was sent out to Antony by Octavian in 35. Antony sent her earlier because she arrived with almost none the the troops Antony had lent Octavian. A long-prepared strike on Parthia in 36 failed, with hefty losses—it to be Antony’s an initial military failure. In ~ this point he turn again come Cleopatra, who had actually borne him two children and also given him full political and financial support.