This write-up was created for ProPublica’s local Reporting Network in partnership v WRKF and also wgc2010.org, and it was additionally co-published v The Times-Picayune/The new Orleans Advocate. Authorize up for Dispatches to get stories choose this one as soon as they room published.
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As Sojourner Gibbs pulled out of her parking an are at a Sam’s club in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana, one afternoon last summer, she feel the familiar, sickening symptom of diabetic shock. Weakness, confusion. She started to sweat and shake uncontrollably. And also then, Gibbs said, panic set in.
Her car lurched forward a couple of feet. She slammed ~ above the brakes. The groceries she had actually just to buy for she family’s Juneteenth barbecue jostled in the back. People started honking your horns. A involved woman walked as much as her car. “I’m a diabetic! I need help!” Gibbs yelled.
The woman dubbed 911. Dispatcher notes present a report the a “Black mrs sitting/screaming” in a gold Ford Expedition. “Appears scared.” moments later: “Needs EMS.”
Jefferson Parish Sheriff’s Office deputies arrived prior to the paramedics. An initial just one, then three more. Gibbs, a doctoral candidate in publicly policy, thrashed in the front seat, her body stiffening. She recalls informing deputies she to be diabetic. The sheriff’s department report says she told deputies come “go away.”
She insists she heard one say, “This bitch is lying. She’s high on something.”
As deputies surrounding the car, Alicia Dardar, who is white and grew up in Jefferson Parish, pulled up nearby. Dardar feel uneasy together she observed what to be happening, she said, and also she assumed of George Floyd, that a month previously had been eliminated by a Minneapolis police officer. She began recording through her cabinet phone.
Alicia Dardar witnessed and also filmed sheriff’s deputies throw Gibbs come the ground together the black color woman pleaded for help. “I think the cop observed a black person and also instantly suspect she's ~ above drugs,” Dardar said. “If it to be me in the vehicle, it would have been a an extremely different moment.”
Her video clip shows the four deputies dragging Gibbs out of the driver’s side door. Gibbs cries, “I don’t understand why you’re doing this.” climate a deputy grabs among Gibbs’ legs from underneath her, sending out her face-first right into the dirt. Lock secure her hands behind her earlier with zip ties, restraining her as paramedics arrive.
She remembers reasoning of her sons, 10 and 4, and praying: Please, Lord, do not take it me.
When paramedics arrived and also took Gibbs’ blood sugar level, it was 17 milligrams per deciliter. Levels below 40 milligrams have the right to be critical, even fatal. She said one paramedic called her, “You might have died.” when she remained in the ambulance, deputies combed through her thing in her SUV.
Over the next couple of months, Gibbs would paper a complaint v the sheriff’s inner affairs division, hoping the officers involved would face consequences. What she didn’t recognize at the time, yet would later on learn, is that the Sheriff’s Office would certainly fail to monitor its own interior investigations policy. Regardless of her complaints, no official would ever interview her or Dardar prior to exonerating the officers of all wrongdoing. The Sheriff’s Office did no respond to questions around Gibbs’ case.
Had the step in the parking many played out in brand-new Orleans, just four miles away, Gibbs’ pursuit of answers likely would have had very different results. That’s due to the fact that just over a te ago, the U.S. Department of Justice exit a scathing report about policing in the city. It discovered that the brand-new Orleans Police Department had actually failed to correctly track and review when its officers provided force, the its interior investigation mechanism was deep flawed, that police officers were disproportionately shooting and also killing black color people, and also that years of ignored complaints and stonewalling had actually eroded publicly trust.
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The report resulted in a settlement commitment with the city in 2013 that has resulted in drastic overhauls in policing, turning a troubled department right into a version — albeit one imperfect one — of reform. Commonwealth monitors composed in February that regardless of still needing part improvement, NOPD had come to be a “changed agency.”
But the DOJ has never launched an examination in Jefferson Parish, a suburb of about 440,000 civilization west of new Orleans that straddles the banks of the Mississippi River. The Sheriff’s Office is just one of the largest in the state, v jurisdiction over the totality of the parish’s 665 square miles, including those cities that have actually their very own police departments.
The Jefferson Parish Sheriff’s Office facility is named for former sheriff harry Lee, who espoused racist views in windy statements.
Here, policing watch a lot favor it go in new Orleans a te ago, with racial disparities in the human being officers shoot, little transparency in situations where pressure is used, and a flawed inner affairs procedure that movie critics say protects problematic deputies instead of the public. Records and data gathered over the critical year by wgc2010.org/WRKF and ProPublica support the claims that plenty of Black residents have actually made because that years: that deputies law white residents and residents of shade in considerably different ways.
More than 70% of people who deputies shot at during the previous eight years were Black, much more than twin the 27% of the populace that is Black, the news organizations’ investigation found. Seventy 5 percent of the civilization who died — 12 that 16 — after gift shot or border by deputies throughout that time were black men.
The disparities resemble those the the Louisiana State Police, which has come under hefty fire recently over a pattern of violence directed at black color arrestees. At that firm — which black color lawmakers have asked the room of justice to investigate — 67% of events where the police used force in recent years have actually targeted black Louisianans, the associated Press report Sept. 9. Black civilization make up almost one-third that the state’s population.
The Jefferson Parish Sheriff’s Office, when questioned about such incidents, failed to provide an important details, exhibiting a absence of transparency. In response to public documents requests, the office can not account for how frequently its deputies use force. It additionally refused to carry out the news organizations with copies of complaints versus deputies.
After failing to respond come weeks of emails and also voicemails, Sheriff Joe Lopinto decreased to it is in interviewed because that this story and also did not respond to written questions. That said only that once his deputies commit serious misconduct, they are arrested, noting the at least nine deputies have been booked since he became sheriff in 2017, back he could not say how countless of those incidents connected officers inappropriately using force.
Based on news reports, only among those bookings appeared to involve too much force — a 21-year Sheriff’s Office veteran who was accused of pepper-spraying a male without justification.
I have family members members and friends that will not drive in parts of Jefferson Parish. Ever. They just won’t carry out it.
Gibbs stated she has actually heard story of abuses by Jefferson Parish deputies for years, however she didn’t check out herself together someone who would ever before have a factor to worry.
“I believed as lengthy as I carry out the things I’m claimed to do, I’d it is in OK,” she said. “We salary our taxes. We have a really nice home. Us go come work. Us go come school. We educate our children.”
In the end, though, she said, none of the mattered. The deputies didn’t watch a woman experiencing a clinical emergency. They saw a black woman acting irrationally, pegged her together a medicine addict, and treated her together such, she said.
“They had a narrative in your minds of that I was and why i was and where i was. And also no issue how countless times I stated I’m diabetic, no one responded to that,” Gibbs said. “They witnessed me and also thought the worst.”
Across the Parish Line
Carved the end of land that belonged to orleans Parish till 1825, Jefferson Parish includes sprawling suburbs outside the city and also stretches down to fishing towns on the Gulf of Mexico. The backgrounds of the 2 parishes room intertwined, their mutual border revised over the years by annexations for reasons both political and pragmatic.
As the two communities grew, their backgrounds diverged. Brand-new Orleans is an global port city, a tourist mecca renowned as the birthplace that jazz. Jefferson Parish eight in the white flight movement of the 1950s and 1960s, as soon as electing David Duke, the cool wizard the the Ku Klux Klan, to the state legislature.
A confederate flag is flown in ~ a residence just a couple of blocks down from wherein Ferel Burke resides with his family. Ferel states he was beaten through deputies to the allude his eyes were swollen shut and also he still has actually migraines from the incident.
Although the population has diversified over the years — Black people now account for an ext than a 4 minutes 1 of the population, and also Latinos have actually grown to account because that 15% — Jefferson Parish voters sustained Donald trumped in the previous two presidential elections and sent conservative republicans to Congress, including former U.S. Sen. David Vitter and Rep. Steve Scalise.
And while the margins of victory have grown tighter in current years, the area’s conservative bending has repercussions for the monitor of the Sheriff’s Office. That’s due to the fact that the Jefferson Parish sheriff, choose the majority of the country’s sheriffs, is an chosen position and also answers only to the voters.
The sheriff additionally derives significant power indigenous the Louisiana Constitution, i beg your pardon prescribes the the place be unconstrained by governmental or civilian oversight. Sheriffs nothing answer to politicians, unequal in brand-new Orleans, where the police cook is appointed by the mayor and also can be fired. In new Orleans, the City council approves the police budget, yet the Jefferson Parish Sheriff’s Office is funded with sources, such as property and sales taxes, that execute not require exterior approval. Publicly calls because that accountability eventually can only end up through the sheriff.
The late Sheriff take care of Lee, who served for 28 years till his fatality in 2007, referred to as his task “the closest thing there is to being a king in the U.S.” Lee open espoused racist views in public statements, when declaring: “If there space some young Blacks control a auto late at night in a predominantly white area, they will be stopped.” He eventually backed off the order, yet he announced 20 years later the his equipment to violent crime to be “only stopping Black people.”
When Hurricane Katrina and the failure of the federal dams flooded new Orleans in 2005, it triggered a big crowd of mainly Black civilization to effort to cross the Crescent City connection bridge right into Jefferson Parish. Lock were challenged by sheriff’s deputies and Gretna Police department officers and forced to turn back. At least one officer fired a shooting in the air, follow to local reports.
No one to be hurt, but the regulation enforcement blockade brought about protests and also allegations the racism indigenous civil civil liberties groups. Lee safeguarded the officers’ actions, speak the area had currently accepted hundreds of evacuees and also didn’t have enough supplies to care for thousands more.
Although the DOJ later discovered that the policemans hadn’t intentionally broken any kind of laws, Jonathan Smith, who was with the DOJ in ~ the time, claimed the events were a “big red flag.” commonwealth investigators knew at the time that Jefferson Parish was “a troubled department,” claimed Smith, who served as chef of the distinct Litigation ar for DOJ’s polite rights division from 2010 to 2015. He added, though, the he could not comment on whether any particular agency was of interest during his tenure.
Ultimately what occurred on Danziger leg in brand-new Orleans 3 days later overshadowed the Jefferson Parish blockade. There, NOPD policemans shot 6 Black human being who were component of a crowd fleeing the flooded city, killing 2 of them. Police attempted to cover increase the murders by planting evidence, fabricating witnesses and also falsifying reports, an examination later found.
A unified front that civil rights attorneys, elected officials and also Black and white residents demanded accountability. The DOJ introduced its yearlong investigation. And also in 2011, the department issued that damning report.
“NOPD’s failure to ensure the its policemans routinely respect the Constitution and also the preeminence of regulation undermines trust within the very communities whose collaboration the Department most needs come enforce the law and also prevent crime,” DOJ investigators concluded. 2 years later, the DOJ entered into a consent decree v the police department, which agreed come sweeping alters in exactly how it operates and also strict exterior oversight.
Several former federal officials told the news organizations there is no particular collection of problems that trigger a DOJ investigation, which is a essential step prior to the department deserve to seek a consent decree. High-profile flare-ups — like the fatal shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, or the death of Freddie Gray in Baltimore — tend to lug scrutiny.
There are, however, certain patterns of misconduct that have actually proven to be of attention to the room of Justice, blacksmith said. Many of castle involve result of racial disparities, and also many involve the police using extreme force and failing to self-control officers because that wrongdoing.
Smith claimed that a absence of accountability is “probably the most essential thing I’ve checked out in every department whereby there’s to be a problem. That gives human being impunity to communicate in bad conduct.”
Evidence of problem policing, however, does no ensure that a federal investigation will be conducted. At the moment Smith was through the DOJ, he stated he had a preferably of 15 attorneys functioning on police investigations. If the department would not carry out updated numbers on staffing, it’s clear the civil Rights department has to do some tough choices around where to focus its efforts amongst the more than 18,000 law enforcement agencies across the country, blacksmith said.
DOJ involvement also tends to walk in waves and largely monitor the politics of the president. Chairman George W. Shrub pursued just three consent decrees; president Barack Obama pursued 15. And under chairman Donald Trump, Attorney basic Jeff Sessions circulated a memo cautioning against their use and also entered right into zero.
After chairman Joe Biden’s election, Attorney general Merrick Garland quickly rescinded Sessions’ order and announced investigations right into the Minneapolis and also Louisville, Kentucky, police departments following the deaths that George Floyd and also Breonna Taylor. The DOJ additionally opened an investigation right into the Phoenix Police department in an answer to accusations that policemans used extreme force versus homeless people.
Absent a consent decree, imposing an ext accountability top top the sheriff’s office would probably require an amendment come the state constitution, follow to experts, i beg your pardon is i can not qualify to pass provided the opposition from both legislation enforcement and also the public.
Advocates speak that pipeline the DOJ as their finest hope, citing the transforms they’ve viewed in new Orleans.
“The consent decree has actually played a far-ranging role in the means the NOPD reflects up now,” claimed Norris Henderson, the founder and executive manager of the new Orleans-based advocacy group Voice that the Experienced, which promotes criminal justice reforms. “JPSO has actually been operating v reckless abandon because that years.”
A Department the Polices Itself
One night critical August, a small after 4 a.m., Theresa Burke landed on her child Ferel’s hospital room in new Orleans, summoned by a phone contact from a nurse who said he had been lugged in by deputies, bruised and bloodied.
Hours earlier, Burke had tried to uncover Ferel, 13 in ~ the time, after hearing he had been detained for stealing a automobile with two friends and also attempting to operation from officers. She no think to call local hospitals. The deputies that met Burke outside her boy door make the efforts to prevent her, telling her she no authorized to see him. She refused to take it no for an answer.
As Burke approached she son’s hospital bed, where he to be lying on his side, his wrists handcuffed behind his back, the 32-year-old dental assistant hit document on she phone. She listed a copy of the resulting video clip to wgc2010.org/WRKF and also ProPublica. Burke can be heard tenderness calling her son’s name. “Ferel? Ferel, wake up.”
He to be drenched in sweat, his confront bloody, Burke said. He wavered in and out the consciousness.
“Look in ~ me,” she said, maintaining her voice short so the guard at the door can not hear. “Look in ~ me. Those wrong?”
“Beat me up,” that responded.
“Beat friend up? who beat you up?” Burke asked her son.
Burke paused to write herself and said: “Mama gonna take care of it. Don’t worry, ya hear?”
But as she seek accountability and an explanation for her son’s injuries, Burke would uncover no basic answers native a department the answers only to itself.
Over the following year, she would hear conflict accounts: her son stated a deputy got hold of his hair and smashed his head into the pavement. The deputy who arrested him composed that Ferel endured minor injuries that might have been incurred in the car wreck or throughout the arrest.
But this is one point all parties ultimately agreed upon: one officer to win Ferel. The arresting deputy stated Ferel resisted, for this reason he “delivered two closed fist strikes to Mr. Burke’s abdomen,” ~ which he “finally complied.”
In brand-new Orleans, since the DOJ investigation, that an easy fact — admitted to by the officer himself — would have actually prompted an inner affairs investigation, even without a official complaint, experts said.
In addition, the department’s use-of-force policy consists of a thorough list of prohibition actions, such together neck holds, warning shots, shooting at relocating vehicles and also pistol whipping. It states that officers have a duty to intercede once they doubt a partner is using excessive force. There is additionally a separate 14-page plan laying out the reporting demands for provides of extreme force.
But no one of that applies in Jefferson Parish.
The Sheriff’s Office has actually a policy that says deputies should only usage as much force as essential to safeguard themselves and also the public. The does not include a list of banned actions. Instead, it says that “generally” deputies must not fire warning shots or shoot at moving vehicles unless the driver is making use of deadly force.
The policy also does no say what level of pressure should notice an intervention or internal investigation. It states only that once a deputy’s usage of pressure results in an injury to either the deputy or a civilian, the deputy must finish a report if a ranking officer goes come the step to determine and record if there are witnesses or evidence.
In Jefferson Parish, it’s not clear that the room is tracking just how its officers use pressure at all. In response to requests, the department detailed only documents of shootings. However the vast bulk of use-of-force occurrences — choose Ferel’s — execute not show off shootings, experts say. However, in solution to requests for records about those non-shooting incidents, the Sheriff’s Office noted none, rather sending along records on a suicide and also murders cursed by civilians. The research organization Police Scorecard job made a similar request because that data ~ above use-of-force incidents. The Sheriff’s Office comment by speak those records don’t exist.
For a lengthy time, brand-new Orleans’ mechanism was likewise broken.
But ~ the DOJ intervened, the NOPD produced a usage of force Review Board that reviews all incidents. The outcomes that use-of-force investigate are published in an online database. The variety of times NOPD officers have actually reported using force has fallen by half over the past 5 years, native 754 in 2015 come 338 critical year, due largely to enhanced training, follow to the consent decree monitor and also criminal righteousness experts.
In Jefferson Parish, there to be no independent screen Burke could turn to for help. She post on Instagram about Ferel’s injuries: “I am deep saddened,” she wrote, “and I desire justice because that my child.”
Then she hired attorney chris Murell, who filed a polite lawsuit and also asked the Sheriff’s Office to carry out all records related come Ferel’s arrest and injuries. Their response, the review by a reporter because that wgc2010.org/WRKF and ProPublica, go not include an interior affairs investigation, a use-of-force evaluation or any mention the discipline. The just time the punching is stated is in a solitary sentence in a report all set by the deputy who arrested him.
They’re going to stand together
These components — the deputy’s admission, the boy’s hospitalization, his mom publicly accusing the deputy of attacking her boy — should have actually raised red flags in ~ the Sheriff’s Office and prompted an internal affairs investigation, said Sam Walker, emeritus professor of criminal justice in ~ the college of Nebraska at Omaha.
“I would certainly assume that hospitalization the a use-of-force victim would immediately trigger one
But Burke claimed that’s specifically what happened. And also some world in the parish seem to be OK with that, she said.
“They’re going come stand together
‘My Son has actually a bullet Wound’
Even in the many high-profile use-of-force occurrences — when officers shoot someone and also or a human dies in custody — the Sheriff’s Office has actually faced similar criticisms. Because 2018, a string of occurrences where deputies shot Black people has motivated mounting calls for reform. Those call intensified last summer between the nationwide protests in solution to Floyd’s death and also allegations the the office concealed from the general public that a deputy shot 14-year-old Tre’mall McGee.
Tre’mall McGee, 14, to be shot in the back by a Jefferson Parish Sheriff’s Office deputy in march of 2020 while he to be facedown top top the ground.
Tre’mall and three friends ran native deputies in march 2020 after being pulled over in a stolen car. Tre’mall was facedown, trying come squeeze under a melted in a backyard, when a deputy shot the in the shoulder. (The deputy said the boy moved his arm and he fear Tre’mall had a gun. The young did not.) The deputy could not be got to for comment.
Tre’mall’s mother, Tiffany McGee, said she tried for months to obtain answers about her son’s shooting, however said the Sheriff’s Office stonewalled her: Tiffany stated she met v the sheriff’s criminal investigations bureau and also asked to record a complaint. They sent out her to the interior affairs division, i m sorry told she to contact the brand-new Orleans branch that the FBI. The FBI sent out her earlier to the Sheriff’s Office, whereby detectives referred she to the head the the pistol violence unit, that told she their policemans hadn’t shot at anyone recently.
When McGee pressed the sergeant, he asked, “He to be shot v a firearm, no a Taser?” follow to a recording of your conversation.
“My son has actually a bullet wound,” she replied. “That is never ever going to go away. At 14 year old, OK?”
Frustrated, McGee lastly turned to the media. When reporters questioned Lopinto critical summer, that insisted the Sheriff’s Office has a “great call of law the ideal thing.” But, he emphasized, “we have actually the government to safeguard ourselves. And guess what? There’s human being out there the shoot at us.”
Lopinto then lashed the end at the attorneys and also families suing him. That accused castle of spreading a “false narrative because that the sake of do the efforts to get a payday” and dismissed Tre’mall’s injuries as “non-life-threatening.” In solution to the family’s lawsuit, the Sheriff’s Office claimed its deputies’ actions to be “reasonable under the circumstances” and also accused Tre’mall of negligence.
Leantay Brooks states she is fighting for justice because that her brothers Leo, who was eliminated by a Jefferson Parish police officers. Since 2013, 16 people have died after being shot or restrained by Jefferson Parish sheriff’s deputies, all but 4 that whom were Black. Among them is Leo Brooks that was shot to death by deputies in July 2019. The sheriff’s office cases Brooks was getting to for a gun as soon as he to be killed, when a lawsuit filed through the household alleges Brooks to be handcuffed and also lying challenge down ~ above a bed as soon as he was shot.
After wgc2010.org/WRKF and also ProPublica filed a public documents request for investigative reports right into every time deputies shot in ~ someone because 2013, it received records for just 16 that 35 incidents. The Sheriff’s Office withheld the remainder, saying some (nearly four years old) were still under investigation, were the subject of pending criminal legal action or involved juveniles. In at the very least a dozen of the 35 shootings, deputies’ account were debated by witnesses or the world who to be shot at, according to public records, news reports and also subsequent lawsuits.
The news organizations’ review discovered that that the 40 world deputies shot at during the previous eight years, 29 were black — an interpretation 73% of civilization shot at by police to be Black, an ext than dual their re-superstructure of the population. (In several of the 35 shootings, an ext than one human was shot at.)
After comparable findings by the DOJ in brand-new Orleans, NOPD now frequently releases body camera footage within 10 work of an officer shooting at who or an incident that results in the hospitalization or death of a civilian. Every shooting root cause independent evaluate of evil interviews, autopsies and also disciplinary hearings.
In brand-new Orleans, “people can have faith in the process,” claimed Stella Cziment with the new Orleans live independence Police Monitor, a civilian oversight agency. “There’s a lot of eyes on the decision, and also a lot of proof behind that decision.”
Without the benefit of that transparency, civilization in Jefferson Parish alleging abuses by deputies have actually turned come the courts. Because 2013, virtually twice as numerous lawsuits alleging wrongdoing by deputies have actually been filed versus the Sheriff’s Office as against the NOPD, in spite of NOPD having around 1,100 officers compared to around 760 in ~ the Sheriff’s Office, according to a wgc2010.org/WRKF and ProPublica review. Three-fourths the the plaintiffs in the Jefferson Parish lawsuits were Black.
The litigation has exposed troubles in just how the Sheriff’s Office handles several of its most serious cases. While that conducts criminal investigations to check out if deputies violated the law, the Sheriff’s Office consistently said in sworn declaration in court filings that it did not conduct interior affairs investigations into high-profile deaths of world in police custody.
This is significant, stated Lou Reiter, a national police consultant and trainer. Inner affairs investigate not just scrutinize the plot of the deputy but likewise assess the response of the organization as a whole. Is over there a solid enough policy in ar to prevent misconduct? Is that enforced? walk supervisors react accordingly and self-control those discovered to it is in in violation of the agency’s ethical standards?
“They’re a fact-finding, unbiased look to say, ‘How can we safeguard all the stakeholders?’ Because, in the end, if you don’t carry out a good job, the neighborhood pays for it,” Reiter said of interior affairs investigations.
Eric Parsa, 16, died in January 2020 ~ deputies — including one that weighed much more than 300 pounds — sat on his earlier for at the very least nine minutes while he was facedown top top the pavement of a parking lot, follow to court records. The coroner ruled the severely autistic boy’s death was an accident as a an outcome of excited delirium, with “prone positioning” together a contributing factor.
The family members filed a lawsuit versus the Sheriff’s Office, i m sorry issued a push release speak the fit was “rife through false claims and also malicious accusations” and claiming the Parsa had attacked his father and deputies were trying to manage him.
William Most, an lawyer suing on behalf of Parsa’s parents, inquiry through discovery if the Sheriff’s Office had conducted an interior affairs investigation. The answer was no, according to court filings. No one was disciplined.
Most, looking to establish a pattern regarding how the Sheriff’s Office handle in-custody deaths, additionally asked around the might 2018 death of 22-year-old Keeven Robinson, whose family insurance claims he passed away after deputies beat and also choked him. Lopinto called reporters he doubt Robinson’s fatality was because of a combination of asthma and poor waiting quality. But the coroner ruled his fatality a homicide through asphyxiation and also that his injuries were consistent with who squeezing his neck or throttle him.
As through Parsa, the Sheriff’s Office stated it did not conduct an internal affairs investigation into Robinson’s death. It additionally said no one was disciplined.
Walker, the criminal justice professor, stated the lack of internal affairs investigations right into such deaths is “inconceivable.”
“I don’t think this occurs everywhere else,” that said.
A flawed Complaints Process
After Gibbs’ encounter with deputies, she was taken to a neighborhood hospital whereby she continued to be for several hours while she blood sugar levels normalized. She returned home later the day v leaves and dirt in her hair from gift thrown come the ground. Her arms were sore from where the deputies grabbed her. She had scratches on she wrists from being handcuffed.
She stood prior to her husband and two children, shaken and also distraught, and also wept.
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Ten days after the incident, Gibbs — named after the renowned abolitionist Sojourner truth — filed a complaint v the sheriff’s interior affairs division, hoping it would spur an investigation and result in disciplinary action against the deputies.