SUMMARY: The cores of every 4 jovian planets are made of some combination of rock, metal and hydrogen compounds. The difference in between the jovian interiors continues to be in the layers the surround the core.

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Sections:Planetary Size and DensityInterior StructureInternal HeatRelated linksRelated Lessons:Looking inside Planets

Have you ever wondered why Jupiter and Saturn are really close in size, however Jupiter"s average density is nearly twice Saturn"s? The answer lies in just how you develop a planet out that hydrogen and also helium. The procedure is comparable to stacking pillows one on optimal of another. As more pillows are stacked ~ above top, the pillows top top the bottom come to be more and much more compressed. The bottom pillows continue to compress till a allude when including pillows doesn"t increase the height of the stack.


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Planet Radius vs. Mass(click to enlarge)

This helps describe why the radii the Jupiter and also Saturn are an extremely close, yet Jupiter is an ext than 3 times together massive. Jupiter ongoing to collect hydrogen and also helium in that atmosphere, increasing its mass and compressing its internal until that is average density was double Saturn"s.

Average thickness (from highest possible to lowest)Neptune 1,638 kg/m3Jupiter 1,326 kg/m3Uranus 1,270 kg/m3Saturn 687 kg/m3

Notice that also though Neptune and Uranus are smaller in size, your densities space much bigger than Saturn"s. This leads united state to believe that Uranus and Neptune have to have substantially different compositions 보다 that the Saturn, through a lot larger portion of higher-density product such together hydrogen compounds and also rock.


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All four jovian earth cores are comparable in composition. Each is composed of a mixture the rock, metal and hydrogen compounds. Their distinctions stem indigenous having caught different quantities of extr hydrogen and helium gas from the solar nebula. Jupiter recorded so lot that it finished up with 300 times Earth"s mass.


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Jovial earth Interiors(click come enlarge)
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A Pie part of Jupiter"s Density
LAYERS surrounding JOVIAN CORES (FROM main point OUTWARD):Jupiter and SaturnMetallic hydrogenLiquid hydrogenGaseous hydrogenVisible cloudsUranus and NeptuneGaseous hydrogenVisible cloudsDensity, temperature and pressure increase with street from the cloud tops.

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The jovian planets acquire their heat from the Sun and also from their interiors. Jupiter creates a lot of of internal heat and releases this warm by emitting thermal radiation. In fact, Jupiter creates so lot internal warm that that emits nearly twice together much power as that receives from the Sun. The just reasonable explanation is that Jupiter is still progressively contracting, nearly as despite it has not fairly finished forming.

Saturn and also Neptune additionally appear to be emitting much more energy 보다 they obtain from the Sun. While us are details Saturn is not quiet contracting, it appears clear that Neptune is quiet contracting. Uranus is the only jovian planet not create excess inner energy.