The Paris peace Conference convened in January 1919 in ~ Versailles just exterior Paris. The conference was called to develop the terms of the peace after civilization War I. Though virtually thirty countries participated, the representatives of the joined Kingdom, France, the unified wgc2010.orgs, and also Italy came to be known as the “Big Four.” The “Big Four” overcame the proceedings that led to the formulation the the contract of Versailles, a treaty the ended civilization War I.

The contract of Versailles articulated the compromises reached at the conference. It had the planned formation of the league of Nations, which would certainly serve both as an worldwide forum and an international collective security arrangement. U.S. Chairman Woodrow Wilson was a strong advocate that the league as he thought it would avoid future wars.

You are watching: Prewar conflicts in europe concerned all of the following except:


Negotiations at the Paris peace Conference were complicated. The unified Kingdom, France, and Italy combated together together the allied Powers throughout the first World War. The united wgc2010.orgs, gone into the battle in April 1917 together an linked Power. If it battled alongside the Allies, the United wgc2010.orgs was not bound to honor pre-existing agreements among the allied Powers. These agreements concentrated on postwar redistribution that territories. U.S. Chairman Woodrow Wilson strongly opposed plenty of of this arrangements, consisting of Italian demands on the Adriatic. This regularly led to far-ranging disagreements amongst the “Big Four.”

Treaty negotiation were additionally weakened by the absence of other important nations. Russia had fought as among the Allies till December 1917, once its new Bolshevik federal government withdrew indigenous the war. The Bolshevik decision come repudiate Russia’s outstanding financial fan to the Allies and to publish the messages of an enig agreements in between the Allies worrying the postwar period angered the Allies. The Allied powers refused to acknowledge the brand-new Bolshevik Government and also thus did no invite its representatives to the tranquility Conference. The Allies also excluded the defeated main Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria).

According to French and British wishes, the contract of Versailles subjected Germany to strictly punitive measures. The Treaty required the brand-new German federal government to surrender around 10 percent of its prewar territory in Europe and all of its overseas possessions. It put the port city that Danzig (now Gdansk) and the coal-rich Saarland under the management of the organization of Nations, and allowed France to exploit the financial resources of the Saarland till 1935. It restricted the German Army and also Navy in size, and permitted for the attempt of Kaiser Wilhelm II and a number of other high-ranking German public representative as war criminals. Under the of write-up 231 that the Treaty, the Germans embraced responsibility for the war and also the liability to salary financial reparations to the Allies. The Inter-Allied Commission identified the amount and also presented its result in 1921. The amount they figured out was 132 billion gold Reichmarks, or 32 billion U.S. Dollars, on top of the early stage $5 billion payment inquiry by the Treaty. Germans grew to resent the harsh problems imposed by the contract of Versailles.

See more: Mens Greek Costume - Men'S Greek Costume


While the treaty of Versailles walk not satisfy all parties concerned, by the time President Woodrow Wilson went back to the United wgc2010.orgs in July 1919, U.S. Windy opinion overwhelmingly favored ratification the the Treaty, including the covenant of the league of Nations. However, despite the reality that 32 legislatures passed resolutions in favor of the Treaty, the U.S. Senate strongly opposed it.

Senate the contrary cited post 10 the the Treaty, which handle with cumulative security and the league of Nations. This article, opponents argued, yielded the war powers that the U.S. Federal government to the League’s Council. The opposition came from 2 groups: the “Irreconcilables,” that refused to join the league of countries under any circumstances, and also “Reservationists,” led by Senate foreign Relations Committee Chairman, Henry Cabot Lodge, who wanted amendments made prior to they would certainly ratify the Treaty. While Chairman Lodge"s attempt to happen amendments to the treaty was not successful in September, that did manage to affix 14 “reservations” come it in November. In a last vote on march 19, 1920, the contract of Versailles fell quick of ratification by seven votes. Consequently, the U.S. Federal government signed the treaty of Berlin on respectable 25, 1921. This separate peace treaty v Germany stipulated that the United claims would gain all “rights, privileges, indemnities, reparations or advantages” conferred come it by the treaty of Versailles, yet left out any mention of the league of Nations, which the joined wgc2010.orgs never joined.