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1 Every so regularly the Moon or sun is hidden in shadow, providing fantastic show for those of us lucky enough to watch. Yet in the previous these very same dark shadows struck are afraid in the mental of ancient civilizations. These events are referred to as eclipses and we now know that one eclipse is a beautiful yet rare event. Even rarer is a full eclipse in which either the sunlight or Moon is completely covered. Knowledge the science behind these occasions is an exciting quest.

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2 Every time the Earth and Moon block the course of the Sun"s rays, they actors shadows countless miles into space. Once the Moon comes between the Earth and also the Sun, a solar eclipse have the right to be viewed by observers ~ above the earth as it passes through the Moon’s shadow. On the other hand, once the earth comes between the Sun and the Moon, a lunar eclipse deserve to be perceived by observers top top the planet as the Moon passes with the earth’s shadow. 3 The soot of an eclipse counts on what part of the Moon’s or earth’s shadow girlfriend view. There are two components to this shadows. Lock are called the umbra and also the penumbra. The umbra is the completely dark section in which all the incoming light is blocked. The is surrounded by the penumbra in which the shadow blocks just portions the the incoming light.
Total Solar Eclipse

image courtesy that hermit.org
photo courtesy the science U
4 As proclaimed earlier, in a solar eclipse the shadow of the Moon is actors upon the Earth. Miscellaneous parts that the earth are extended to a various extent. Civilization covered through the penumbra will watch a partial eclipse of the Sun. Those inside the umbra will see a complete eclipse of the Sun. 5 It is vital to note that the illustration shown over has been attracted greatly out of proportion. To offer you a feel for the massive size differences involved, the center of the sunlight is 92 million miles away from the facility of the planet while the broad of the Moon"s shadow during a solar eclipse have the right to be no larger than 167 miles. This particularly dichotomy in variety (roughly 55,000:1) renders it difficult to attract diagrams come scale and also still make them useful. 6 The Moon circles the planet at the very least 12 times during a year. So, why carry out eclipses happen so rarely? to answer this question, we must very first examine two of the Moon"s phases and the tilt of its orbit. Together the Moon one the Earth, various portions the the Moon’s surface reflect Sunlight earlier towards the Earth; for this reason what we speak to "Moonlight" is in reality reflected Sunlight. The Moon"s phases depend upon the relative position with respect to the Earth and the Sun. Throughout a full Moon the side of the Moon dealing with the earth is totally illuminated. Throughout a new Moon the side of the Moon visible from planet receives no Sunlight and also is totally dark.
picture courtesy that the Southwest study Institute
7 due to the fact that the Moon one the earth at a five degree slant from the Earth-Sun plane, the Earth, Moon, and Sun hardly ever come into precise alignment. Based upon our understanding of solar eclipses, they can take ar only as soon as the Moon is in its brand-new phase and also its zero can fall on the earth’s surface. Furthermore, a lunar eclipse can take place only once the Moon is in its full phase and also the shadow of the planet can loss on the surface. If us number the positions on the over diagram clockwise from the top, a solar eclipse is illustrated in the fourth picture once the shadows of the Earth and Moon align and the Moon is in its new phase. The 3rd picture shows just how the 5º slant in between the Earth-Sun airplane and the Moon"s orbital aircraft causes the shadows come be the end of alignment. A lunar eclipse is portrayed in the first picture once the shadows that the Earth and also Moon align and the Moon is in its full phase. It is exciting to keep in mind that as soon as the Earth and Moon room in the same plane as the sunlight it is common for both a solar and also a lunar eclipse to happen within two weeks of each other, the quantity of time essential for the Moon to move from its brand-new to complete phase, or fifty percent of a lunar month! 8 Lunar eclipses often appear red. This is since the Earth’s atmosphere refracts, or bends, the light ray of the sunlight towards the Moon. That is the same impact that to produce red Sunsets, due to the fact that only the longest wavelengths of light, favor red, can pass through greater thicknesses of environment without being scattered. Since the earth casts a enlarge shadow 보다 the Moon, lunar eclipses have the right to be regarded by world throughout an entire hemisphere, not simply from the minimal area usual of solar eclipses.
Total Lunar Eclipse
images courtesy of hermit.org

9 No matter where you room on the globe watching eclipses is enthralling. The pretty thing around lunar eclipses is the they are constantly safe come look at and fun come watch. Solar eclipses, ~ above the various other hand, are dangerous come watch because looking straight at the sunlight can cause serious damage to her vision. One an approach of city hall a solar eclipse is to use 2 pieces the cardboard. Start by punching a pinhole in one. Then, through your back to the Sun, organize up the item of cardboard through the hole above your head and place the other piece behind it. When your angles are appropriately aligned, the rays of light from the eclipse will pass with the hole and also be projected top top the lower piece of cardboard. In this means you will have the ability to view the eclipse safely. 10 now that you have a far better understanding that the scientific research behind eclipses, no fear should accompany the i of their shadows.
picture courtesy that NASA: Astronomy snapshot of the work
A solar eclipse can occur only as soon as the Moon is in the ______________ phase; a lunar eclipse can happen only if the Moon is in the ________________ phase.
1.A. New; new
B. Full; full
C. New; full
D. Full; new
The Moon one the planet at a five degree slant from the plane of the Earth and Sun. This tilt that the Moon explains
2.A. The rarity the lunar and solar eclipses.
B. Why the Moon one the earth 12 times during a year.
C. The reality that lunar eclipses often appear red.
D. Why solar eclipses space seen during the day, if lunar eclipses are regarded at night.
In paragraph 5, the is provided that the ratio of distance between the Sun and also Earth to the broad of the Moon is about 550,000:1. If you to be to try to attract a diagram to range of a solar eclipse, and the width of the Moon was to be represented by 16.7 millimeters, what would certainly be the approximate street from the facility of the sun to the center of the Earth?
3.A. 3.04 millimeters
B. 32.9 meters
C. 9.2 kilometers
D. 920 kilometers
In the eclipse diagrams, a pair the intersecting currently is created by the lines that ultimately consist of the outer borders of the penumbra. If the angle at which this lines accomplish is 37 , uncover the measure of the marked angle in the figure below.
4.A. 37°
B. 53°
C. 143°
D. The value of x can not be identified from the given information.
In the complying with sentences indigenous the i 9 in the passage, what does the word enthralling mean? “No issue where you space on the globe, the town hall eclipses is enthralling. The pretty thing about lunar eclipses is the they are always safe come look at and also fun to watch.”
5.A. Dangerous
B. Holds girlfriend spellbound
C. Create a feeling of fear
D. Safe
Which of the complying with would no be a possible reference source for finding details on the reasons of lunar eclipses appearing red?
6.A. An encyclopedia
B. A geology text book
C. A physical scientific research text book
D. One astronomy journal
which of the adhering to is the best an option to describe why people of ancient civilizations might have to be fearful of one eclipse? having shadows fall over normally lighted celestial objects would be dreadful to people who don’t understand the scientific research behind an eclipse.Some old people had actually superstitious beliefs that darkness indicated fatality or a curse from the gods.
7.A. Neither i nor II are acceptable reasons.
B. Both I and II room acceptable reasons.
C. Ns is an acceptable reason but II is not.
D. II is an agree reason but I is not.

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What is the author’s function in writing this article?
8.A. To educate the reader about how one eclipse occurs
B. To guide the leader to see an eclipse
C. To define the physics that the gravitational pull between the Earth, the Moon, and also the Sun
D. To display how to watch a solar eclipse