Jupiter is the fifth planet indigenous the Sun and by much the largest. Jupiter is more thantwice as massive as every the various other planets merged (318 times Earth). Orbit: 778,330,000 km (5.20 AU) native Sundiameter: 142,984 kilometres (equatorial)mass: 1.900e27 kgJupiter (a.k.a. Jove; Greek Zeus) was the King the the Gods, the ruler of Olympus and also thepatron the the roman state. Zeus to be the boy of Cronus (Saturn).

Jupiter is the 4th brightest thing in the sky (after the Sun, the Moon and Venus;at part times Mars is also brighter). It has actually been known since prehistoric times. Galileo"sdiscovery, in 1610, that Jupiter"s four big moons Io, Europa,Ganymede and also Callisto (now recognized as the Galilean moons) to be the first discovery that acenter of movement not apparently focused on the Earth. It was a significant point in donate ofCopernicus"s heliocentric theory of the activities of the planets; Galileo"s outspokensupport that the Copernican theory acquired him arrested by the Inquisition. He was forced torecant his beliefs and also was imprisoned for the remainder of his life.

Jupiter was an initial visited by Pioneer 10 in 1973 and later by Pioneer 11, Voyager 1,Voyager 2 and also Ulysses. The spacecraft Galileo is right now in orbit around Jupiter andwill be sending ago data for at the very least the following two years. The gas planets do not have actually solid surfaces, their gaseous material simply it s okay denser withdepth (the radii and also diameters quoted because that the planets are for levels matching to apressure the 1 atmosphere). What we see once looking at this planets is the top of cloudshigh in their environments (slightly over the 1 setting level). Jupiter is around 90% hydrogen and 10% helium (by number of atoms, 75/25% through mass) withtraces of methane, water, ammonia and also "rock". This is an extremely close to thecomposition that the primordial Solar Nebula indigenous which the whole solar device was formed.Saturn has actually a similar composition, yet Uranus and also Neptune have actually much less hydrogen andhelium. Our understanding of the interior of Jupiter (and the various other gas planets) is very indirectand likely to stay so for some time. (The data native Galileo"s atmospheric probe goesdown only around 150 km below the cloud tops.) Jupiter probably has a main point of rocky product amounting to something like 10 come 15Earth-masses. Over the core lies the main mass of the earth in the type of liquidmetallic hydrogen. This exotic form of the most usual of aspects is possible only atpressures exceeding 4 million bars, together is the instance in the interior of Jupiter (andSaturn). Liquid metallic hydrogen is composed of ionized protons and also electrons (like theinterior of the Sun yet at a much lower temperature). At the temperature and pressure ofJupiter"s interior hydrogen is a liquid, no a gas. The is an electrical conductor and thesource the Jupiter"s magnetic field. This great probably likewise contains part helium andtraces of various "ices". The outermost class is composed mainly ofordinary molecule hydrogen and also helium i beg your pardon is fluid in the interior and also gaseous furtherout. The environment we see is just the an extremely top that this deep layer. Water, carbon dioxide,methane and also other straightforward molecules are also present in small amounts. Three distinct layers the clouds are thought to exist consist of of ammonia ice, ammoniumhydrosulfide and a mixture the ice and also water. However, the preliminary results from theGalileo probe show only pass out indications of clouds (one instrument appears to have actually detectedthe topmost great while an additional may have actually seen the second). However the probe"s entry point wasunusual -- Earth-based telescopic observations and much more recent observations by the Galileoorbiter imply that the probe entry site may well have been one of the warmest and also leastcloudy locations on Jupiter at the time. Data native the Galileo atmospheric probe additionally indicate that there is much less water thanexpected. The expectation was that Jupiter"s environment would contain around twice theamount the oxygen (combined v the numerous hydrogen to do water) as the Sun. Yet itnow shows up that the actual concentration much much less than the Sun"s. Also surprising wasthe high temperature and density that the uppermost components of the atmosphere.

Jupiter and also the other gas planets have high velocity winds which space confined in widebands the latitude. The winds punch in opposite directions in nearby bands. Slightchemical and temperature differences in between these bands room responsible because that the coloredbands that dominate the planet"s appearance. The light colored bands are called zones; thedark ones belts. The bands have been well-known for part time ~ above Jupiter, yet the complexvortices in the boundary regions in between the bands were an initial seen through Voyager. The datafrom the Galileo probe indicate that the winds are also faster than supposed (more than400 mph) and extend down into as far as the probe was able to observe; they might extenddown countless kilometers into the interior. Jupiter"s setting was also found to bequite turbulent. This suggests that Jupiter"s winds are moved in large part by itsinternal warm rather than from solar input as on Earth.

The lively colors checked out in Jupiter"s clouds are most likely the an outcome of ethereal chemicalreactions that the trace facets in Jupiter"s atmosphere, perhaps including sulfur whosecompounds take it on a wide selection of colors, yet the details room unknown. The colorscorrelate through the cloud"s altitude: blue lowest, adhered to by browns and whites, with redshighest. Occasionally we watch the reduced layers with holes in the upper ones.

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The great Red point out (GRS) has actually been watched by Earthly observers for more than 300 years (itsdiscovery is generally attributed come Cassini, or Robert Hooke in the 17th century). The GRSis one oval about 12,000 through 25,000 km, large enough to host two Earths. Various other smaller butsimilar spots have been recognized for decades. Infrared observations and also the direction the itsrotation suggest that the GRS is a high-pressure region whose cloud top aresignificantly higher and cooler than the surrounding regions. Comparable structures have beenseen top top Saturn and Neptune. Computer models in i m sorry equations because that fluid circulation (gas istreated together a liquid by physicists), Coriolis force, and the rotation that the planet, suggestthat the spot falls into the family members of "strange attractors", a strange islandof structure that can appear within an overtly chaotic and also disorderly system. It iss self-organizing mechanism that fan its visibility to the same nonlinear twists that createthe unpredictable turmoil approximately it. In a method the good Red spot represents"stable" chaos.Jupiter radiates an ext energy into an are than it receives from the Sun. The internal ofJupiter is hot: the main point is probably around 20,000 K. The warmth is generated by theKelvin-Helmholtz mechanism, the slow gravitational compression of the planet. (Jupiterdoes NOT produce energy by nuclear fusion as in the Sun; the is lot too small and henceits inner is as well cool come ignite nuclear reactions.) This interior warm probably causesconvection deep in ~ Jupiter"s liquid layers and is more than likely responsible because that the complexmotions we check out in the cloud tops. Saturn and Neptune are similar to Jupiter in thisrespect, however oddly, Uranus is not. Jupiter is just about as huge in diameter together a gas planet can be. If an ext material wereto be added, it would certainly be compressed by gravity such that the overall radius would increaseonly slightly. A star can be larger only since of its internal (nuclear) warm source.(But Jupiter would need to be at the very least 80 times an ext massive to become a star.) Jupiter has a vast magnetic field, much stronger than Earth"s. The magnetosphere extendsmore 보다 650 million kilometres (past the orbit the Saturn!). (Note that Jupiter"s magnetosphereis much from spherical -- it extends "only" a few million kilometers in thedirection toward the Sun.) Jupiter"s moons as such lie within its magnetosphere, a factwhich might partially define some the the activity on Io. Regrettably for future spacetravelers and of real problem to the developers of the Voyager and Galileo spacecraft, theenvironment near Jupiter includes high level of energetic corpuscle trapped through Jupiter"smagnetic field. This "radiation" is comparable to, however much more intense than, thatfound in ~ Earth"s van Allen belts. It would certainly be automatically fatal to an unprotectedhuman being. The Galileo atmospheric probe found a new intense radiation beltbetween Jupiter"s ring and the uppermost atmospheric layers. This new belt isapproximately 10 times as solid as Earth"s valve Allen radiation belts. Surprisingly, thisnew belt was also found come contain high power helium ion of unknown origin.Jupiter has rings favor Saturn"s, yet much fainter and smaller. They to be totallyunexpected and were only uncovered when 2 of the Voyager 1 researchers insisted thatafter travel 1 billion kilometres it was at least worth a rapid look to view if any rings mightbe present. Everyone else believed that the chance of recognize anything was nil, but therethey were. It to be a significant coup. They have because been imaged in the infra-red fromground-based telescopes and also by Galileo. Unlike Saturn"s, Jupiter"s rings room dark (albedo about .05). They"re most likely composed ofvery small grains that rocky material. Unlike Saturn"s rings, lock seem to contain no ice. Particles in Jupiter"s rings more than likely don"t continue to be there for long (due to atmospheric andmagnetic drag). Galileo found clear evidence that the rings are continuously resupplied bydust formed by micrometeor results on the four inner moons, i m sorry are really energeticbecause the Jupiter"s big gravitational field. The inner aur ring is broadened byinteractions with Jupiter"s magnetic field.

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In July 1994, Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 collided with Jupiterwith spectacular results. The impacts were plainly visible also with amateur telescopes.The debris native the collision to be visible for virtually a year afterward with HST. Jupiter"s SatellitesJupiter has actually 16 known satellites, the four large Galilean moons and 12 small ones.

Two of these moons space seen on our flyby animation, Europaand Io.

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Europa"s surface showsstructures that have been construed as frozen together ice rafts (compareto sea-ice on Earth), and also the overallsmooth surface ar may show that over there is a slush-like s beneath (a giant Slurpee!). It is among the an ext likely locations in the solar sytem wherein microbial life couldhave evolved and may still exist. Mental the movie 2001? Io is significantfor that abundant and forecful volcanic eruptions.

Jupiter is really gradually slow down as result of the tidal drag created by the Galileansatellites. Also, the exact same tidal pressures are changing the orbits of the moons, very slowlyforcing lock farther indigenous Jupiter. Io, Europa and also Ganymede are locked with each other by tidal pressures into a 1:2:4 orbit resonanceand your orbits evolve together. Callisto is almost component of this as well. In a fewhundred million years, Callisto will be locked in too, orbiting at exactly twice theperiod of Ganymede and also eight time the period of Io.


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Jupiter"s satellites are called for other figures in the life of Zeus (mostly his lovers).