Medically reperceived by Deborah Weatherspoon, Ph.D., R.N., CRNA — Written by Tom Seymour on September 15, 2017

It comes from the Greek words hupér, interpretation over, and haîma, meaning blood.

You are watching: The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by

In this write-up, we study what hyperemia is, in addition to its causes and also symptoms. We likewise take a look at the distinction in between energetic and also passive hyperemia.


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Share on PinterestHyperemia is an excess of blood in blood vessels and might look red and warm, such as when a perboy blushes.
Hyperemia occurs as soon as excess blood builds up inside the vascular mechanism, which is the mechanism of blood vessels in the body.

When excess blood occurs outside the vascular mechanism, because of a damaged blood vessel or injury, this is recognized as hemorrhage.

The buildup of blood might existing as a red, warmth, painful, swollen location. These indicators, together with loss of attribute, are considered the original five indicators of inflammation defined by the Greek philosopher Celsus.


Hyperemia deserve to be broken down into two types: active and also passive.

These types deserve to then be additionally divided right into regional hyperemia (interpretation in a specific area) or basic hyperemia (affecting a entirety mechanism in the body).

Hyperemia have the right to be acute or chronic, definition it deserve to happen easily and also for a short time or may persist over a much longer term.

Active hyperemia

Active hyperemia is a physiological response to somepoint happening in the body. It is an acute develop of hyperemia.

For example, tbelow is even more blood in the digestive system after a meal, more blood in the muscles after exercise, and even more blood in the challenge as soon as a perboy blushes.

Increased blood flow and also redness occur when tright here is a demand for oxygen and also nutrients in a particular location.

The two various kinds of energetic hyperemia are:

Acute general energetic hyperemia: When tbelow is boosted blood circulation throughout the body.Acute neighborhood active hyperemia: When tright here is an boosted amount of blood in a local location such as the leg, stomach, or lung. This is the many common form of hyperemia.

Passive hyperemia

Also known as congestion, passive hyperemia have the right to be either acute or chronic.

Chronic passive hyperemia usually occurs in the body organ systems of the lung, liver, and also reduced extremities.

It may be localized to one area. However, if the blood flow in the heart is being impeded, then it will impact the entirety system.

This occurs as soon as tbelow is a lessened outflow out of the blood vessels.


The reasons of hyperemia vary relying on whether it is energetic or passive.

Causes of active hyperemia include:

exerciseinflammationmenopausal flushconditions that make the heart beat rapidly

Causes of passive hyperemia include:

a blockage in a blood vessela kink in a veinthrombosis

Anvarious other reason of passive hyperemia is the inability of the heart to pump blood effectively, bring about a buildup of too a lot blood in areas leading to the heart.

In right-sided heart faiattract, the blood backs up into the liver. In left-sided heart faitempt, the blood backs up right into the lungs.

Right-sided heart failure

If the difficulty is on the appropriate side of the heart, it have the right to reason congestion in the liver, spleen, kidney, or leg.

This deserve to result in what is recognized as “nutmeg liver” due to the mottled pattern that appears on the liver. The liver will certainly likewise be enlarged, red or reddish-blue in appearance, and also surrounded by brownish-yellow fatty liver cells.

In time, this can reason cirrhosis, which is scarring led to by irreversible liver damage and have the right to eventually cause liver faitempt and fatality.

Left-sided heart failure

The lungs are even more most likely to be impacted if there is a problem with the left side of the heart. The lungs will certainly show up dark red and also tright here might be excess liquid in the lungs.

Heart faiattract in one side deserve to ultimately bring about faientice in the oppowebsite side as well.


Hyperemia deserve to adjust the tconcern in the impacted area. People through active hyperemia may notice one or more of the following symptoms:

bright red in colorwarmer than usual to touchswelling

Passive hyperemia affects the tproblem differently and has actually the adhering to symptoms:

dark blue or red tingeswollencooler than usual to touchin chronic situations, brvery own in color

Effects and also complications

The type of hyperemia a perchild has will certainly identify what sort of complications might happen.

For example, acute neighborhood energetic hyperemia may be a sign of inflammation. Acute local passive hyperemia can be because of intestinal or uterus torsion.

Chronic neighborhood passive hyperemia can show that tumors or abscesses are emerging in the body.

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Passive hyperemia, or congestion, is linked to heart problems and will impact various organs in the body depending upon which part of the heart is influenced.