|Crater Lake Caldera|
Crater Lake Caldera: A satellite view of Crater Lake, one of the world"s most famed calderas. Crater Lake formed around 7700 years back when a substantial volcanic eruption of mount Mazama cleared a large magma chamber listed below the mountain. The fractured rock over the magma chamber broke down to develop a huge crater over six miles across. Century of rain and also snow filled the caldera, developing Crater Lake. Through a depth the 1949 feet (594 meters), Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the united States and also the ninth-deepest lake in the world. The image over was developed using Landsat GeoCover data from NASA. Enlarge image.
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What is a Caldera?
Calderas are some of the most spectacular features on Earth. Lock are huge volcanic craters that kind by two different methods: 1) an explosive volcanic eruption; or, 2) fallen of surface rock right into an empty magma chamber.
The accompanying photo is a satellite view of among the most renowned calderas - Crater Lake in Oregon. Crater Lake to be formed about 7700 years back when an massive volcanic eruption of mountain Mazama cleared a large magma chamber listed below the mountain. The broken rock above the magma chamber broke down to produce a huge craterover 6 miles across. Centuries of rain and snow to fill the caldera, creating Crater Lake. Through a depth of 1949 feet (594 meters), Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the unified States and also the ninth-deepest lake in the world.
Collapse calderas kind when a big magma chamber is emptied by a volcano eruption or by subsurface magma movement. The unsupported rock that forms the roof the the magma chamber climate collapses to kind a huge crater. Crater Lake and also many other calderas space thought to have formed by this process.
The four-step illustration listed below explains exactly how the Crater Lake caldera is thought to have actually formed. The video on this page shows a table-top model of caldera formation. This would be terrific activity because that teachers to do with their students, or they have the right to simply present the video using computer projection.
Caldera demonstration: This video clip shows a teaching activity that plainly demonstrates how a caldera is formed. It have the right to be complicated to describe or attract how a caldera forms. This table-top model is a an excellent demonstration. Teachers deserve to do this activity with your students, or simply present the video clip in course using computer system projection. Dina Venezky and Stephen Wessells, 2010, Caldera demonstrate Model: U.S. Geological survey Open-File Report 2010-1173.
|What reasons Explosive Eruptions in ~ Kilauea?|
Explosive Eruptions at Kilauea: many of Kilauea"s pre-1924 explosive eruptions the produced far-reaching ash deposits most likely happened once the volcano"s summit crater was so deep that its floor was listed below the water table, letting groundwater seep in to form a lake. At any time magma erupted into the lake water, violent explosions of steam and volcano gases resulted, fragmenting the magma right into tiny ash particles and also driving fast-moving, very hot ash-laden vapor clouds (pyroclastic surges) out of the crater. Image and caption by USGS.
|Steps in the formation of Crater Lake Caldera|
Eruptions of ash and pumice: The cataclysmic eruption started from a vent ~ above the northeast side of the volcano as a towering shaft of ash, with pyroclastic flows spreading to the northeast. Caldera collapse: As much more magma was erupted, cracks opened up up roughly the summit, which started to collapse. Fountains of pumice and ash surrounding the collapsing summit, and also pyroclastic flows raced down all political parties of the volcano. Steam explosions: as soon as the dust had actually settled, the brand-new caldera was 5 miles (8 km) in diameter and 1 mile (1.6 km) deep. Groundwater interacted with hot deposits, leading to explosions of heavy steam and ash. Today: In the first couple of hundred year after the cataclysmic eruption, renewed eruptions constructed Wizard Island, Merriam Cone, and also the central platform. Water fill the new caldera to form the deepest lake in the united States. Number modified native diagrams on ago of 1988 USGS map "Crater Lake nationwide Park and also Vicinity, Oregon." Illustration and also caption by the United says Geological Survey.
Caldera demonstration: This video clip shows a teaching task that clearly demonstrates how a caldera is formed. It have the right to be challenging to explain or attract how a caldera forms. This table-top model is a an excellent demonstration. Teachers can do this activity with their students, or simply show the video clip in course using computer system projection. Dina Venezky and also Stephen Wessells, 2010, Caldera show Model: U.S. Geological inspection Open-File Report 2010-1173.
Explosive calderas are created when very large magma chambers filled v silica-rich melt and also abundant gas move upwards from depth. Silica-rich magmas have actually a an extremely high viscosity that enables them to host gas balloon under an extremely high pressures. Together they climb to the surface, the palliation of pressure causes the gases to expand. Once break-through occurs the an outcome can be an huge explosion i beg your pardon blasts away huge volumes of rock to form the caldera. Several of these blasts eject numerous cubic kilometers of magma and rock.
|Yellowstone Caldera Chain|
Yellowstone Caldera Chain: The existing caldera at Yellowstone is the many recent in a series of eruptions that expectancy millions of years. The phibìc American bowl is relocating west end a stationary hot spot. Together the plate moves, the hotspot to produce an huge eruption (and a large caldera) every couple of million years. This has actually produced local basaltic lavas and a chain of rhyolitic caldera groups (circles, with ages in millions of years) along the monitor of the Yellowstone warm spot. Photo by USGS.
The Yellowstone Supervolcano & Caldera Chain
Yellowstone nationwide Park is world-famous because that its geysers and also hot springs. Those thermal functions are easy-to-observe evidence of an active magma mechanism beneath the Park. This magma mechanism has developed some that the largest volcanic eruptions in Earth"s history - eruptions so huge that they have actually been dubbed "supervolcanoes." one of these eruptions produced a caldera around 50 miles across that underlies many of Yellowstone nationwide Park.
|The Toba Explosive Eruption|
Toba Caldera: Landsat GeoCover picture of the caldera developed by the Toba Supervolcano. The is currently the world"s largest volcanic lake. The image above was produced using Landsat GeoCover data native NASA. Enlarge image.
The Toba Supervolcano
About 73,000 year ago, the eruption of Toba top top the island that Sumatra, Indonesia created what is believed to be the largest explosive eruption on planet in at least the previous 25 million years.
The Toba blast is believed to have actually deforested much of central India - about 3000 miles from the eruption site. The blast is thought to have actually ejected around 800 cubic kilometers the ash right into the atmosphere, creating a crater the is 100 kilometers long and 35 kilometers wide. The crater is now the site of the world"s largest volcanic lake.
|Compare Explosive Eruptions|
Volcanic Explosivity is a technique of compare the dimension of explosive volcano eruptions by estimating the volume of product ejected. Our post on the "Volcanic Explosivity Index" offers a graphics comparison of the Crater Lake, Toba, and also Yellowstone supervolcanoes.
|Calderas on various other Planets|
Calderas on various other Planets: complicated caldera in ~ the summit of Olympus Mons Volcano - a shield volcano that is the tallest function on Mars. This caldera is very comparable to the caldera complex at the summit of Earth"s biggest shield volcano - Mauna Loa Volcano ~ above the island that Hawaii. Image by NASA.
|Snow-Covered Calderas on Hawaii|
Mauna Loa Volcano: Snow-covered Moku"aweoweo Caldera atop Mauna Loa shield volcano (Mauna Kea in background) on the island the Hawaii. The caldera is 3 x 5 km across, 183 m deep, and is estimated to have collapsed in between 600-750 years ago. Number of pit craters along the top southwest rift zone of Mauna Loa (lower right) also formed by please of the ground. Image and caption by USGS. Enlarge image.
|Aniakchak Caldera, Alaska|
Aniakchak Caldera in Alaska: Aniakchak Caldera, situated in the Aleutian selection of Alaska, formed during an substantial explosive eruption the expelled more than 50 km3 that magma about 3,450 year ago. The caldera is 10 kilometers in diameter and also 500-1,000 meters deep. Subsequent eruptions developed domes, cinder cones, and explosion pits ~ above the caldera floor. Enlarge image.
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