Truman’s last years in office were marred by charges that his management was lax about, or even condoned, subversion and disloyalty and that communists, referred to as “reds,” had actually infiltrated the government. This accusations were made despite Truman’s strongly anticommunist foreign policy and his creation, in 1947, of an elaborate Federal Employee loyalty Program, which result in numerous federal employees being fired and in several thousand more being compelled to resign.
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The extreme fear of communist subversion to be fed by countless sources. China’s loss to communism and the announcement of a Soviet atom explosion in 1949 alarmed many, and fighting in between communist and also U.S.-supported factions in Korea heightened political emotions as well. Real instances of disloyalty and also espionage likewise contributed, especially the theft of atom secrets, because that which Soviet agent Julius Rosenberg and his mam Ethel were convicted in 1951 and also executed 2 years later. Republicans had actually much to acquire from exploiting these and also related issues.
U.S. Troops preparing for the assault on Inch"ŏn during the oriental War, September 1950.
In addition to militarizing the Cold War, the Korean dispute widened that is field. The United states assumed duty for protecting Taiwan against invasion from mainland China. Extr military assist was prolonged to the French in Indochina. In December 1950 Truman called for a crash regime of rearmament, not just to assistance the forces in Korea however especially to expand the U.S. Visibility in Europe. Together a result, defense expenditures rose to $53.6 billion in 1953, four times the pre-Korean level, and would decrease only modestly after ~ the armistice.
Peace, growth, and prosperity
The stalemated korean War, a rebirth of inflation, and the proceeding Red Scare persuaded Truman not to was standing for reelection in 1952 and also gravely handicapped Gov. Adlai E. Stevenson the Illinois, the democratic nominee. His opponent, Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, was an immensely well-known war hero with great personal charm and also no politics record, do him extremely hard to attack. Although the disliked your methods, Eisenhower permitted Republican campaigners, consisting of his to run mate, Sen. Richard M. Nixon of California, come capitalize top top the Red fear by accusing the Truman management of disloyalty. Eisenhower himself charged the management with obligation for the communist intrusion of Korea and won broad acclaim once he substantially promised that if chosen he would visit Korea in human being to finish the war.
Adlai E. Stevenson waving come supporters before speaking at Madison Square Garden, new York City, 1952.
Eisenhower won over many farmers, country whites, workers, and Roman Catholics who had previously vote Democratic. He beat Stevenson by a large margin, transporting 39 states, including three in the once solidly democratic South. Regardless of Eisenhower’s overwhelming victory, republic gained manage of the home by just eight votes and also managed only a tie in the Senate. Because the Republican margin was so slight, and also because many right-wing republic in congress disagreed through his policies, Eisenhower would increasingly depend upon democrats to establish his objectives.
Eisenhower had actually promised to end the korean War, hold the heat on government spending, balance the budget, abolish inflation, and also reform the Republican Party. ~ above July 27, 1953, an armistice to be signed in Korea freezing the status quo. By cutting defense spending when taxes remained relatively high, and also by keeping a tight rein top top credit, Eisenhower to be able to avoid serious deficits, abolish inflation, and, regardless of several tiny recessions, encourage steady economic growth the made Americans an ext prosperous 보다 they had ever before been before. Eisenhower likewise supported windy works and a modest development of government social programs. In 1954 the St. Lawrence Seaway breakthrough Corporation was developed by Congress. In 1956 congress authorized the National device of Interstate and Defense Highways, Eisenhower’s pet project and the biggest public works routine in history. Amendments to the Social protection Act in 1954 and 1956 prolonged benefits come millions not previously covered. Thus, Eisenhower accomplished all but the critical of his goals, and also even in that he was at least partially successful. At first Eisenhower did tiny to check the Red Scare, however in 1954 councilor McCarthy unwisely started to inspection the management and the U.S. Army. This caused a full-scale investigation of McCarthy’s own activities, and on December 2 the Senate, with Eisenhower play a behind-the-scenes role, formally censured McCarthy because that abusing his colleagues. McCarthy soon shed all influence, and also his autumn did much to remove the poison that had actually infected American politics. In short, Eisenhower was so successful in restoring peace that, by the end of his first term, some people were complaining that life had become too dull.
Tensions eased in international affairs as well. On in march 5, 1953, Joseph Stalin died, opened the door to much better relations v the Soviet Union. In 1955 the Soviets i agreeed to end the four-power occupation the Austria, and also in the July Eisenhower met in Geneva v the brand-new Soviet leader, Nikita S. Khrushchev, because that talks that were friendly despite inconclusive.
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As for armed forces policy, Eisenhower instituted the “New Look,” which entailed reduce the military from 1,500,000 males in 1953 to 900,000 in 1960. The navy competent smaller reductions, when air pressure expenditures rose. Eisenhower was generally interested in deterring a atom attack and to that end advocated expensive breakthroughs in atom weaponry and also long-range missiles.