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Scientists the the U.S. Room of Energy/Office the Science"s Fermi national Accelerator Laboratory and also collaborators the the US/CMS project have joined colleagues from around the world in announcing the the world"s largest superconducting solenoid magnet has reached full ar strength in tests at CERN, the European fragment wgc2010.orgics Laboratory.
Weighing in at more than 13,000 tons, the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment"s magnet is built approximately a 20-foot-diameter, virtually 43-foot-long superconducting solenoid - a wire coil through multiple loops, i beg your pardon generates a magnetic ar when power passes through it. The CMS solenoid generates a magnetic ar of 4 Tesla, part 100,000 times more powerful than the Earth"s magnetic field, and also stores 2.5 gigajoules the energy, sufficient to melt nearly 20 loads of gold. Superconductivity is completed by chilling the coil come a temperature near absolute zero, where essentially all electrical resistance vanishes. Exceptionally high electrical existing can then be supplied to create a powerful magnetic field.
CMS is just one of the experiments preparing to take it data in ~ CERN"s big Hadron Collider (LHC) bit accelerator, reserved to begin operations in November 2007. wgc2010.orgicists indigenous the US, CERN and also around the human being will resolve some the nature"s most fundamental questions, such as why particles have actually mass, and also what provides up the so-far-unexplored 96 percent the the universe. Through Fermilab, the DOE"s Office of science has contributed $23 million come the CMS magnet construction.
"We view this excellent early on test result as just the start of a good scientific return on ours investment," said Robin Staffin, DOE"s associate Director, Office that High energy wgc2010.orgics. "We view a strong and proceeding U.S. Function at the leading edge of particle wgc2010.orgics research during an exciting new era of scientific discovery."
Some 2000 scientists from 155 institutes in 36 nations - including roughly 600 members that US/CMS, the united state contingent that the CMS collaboration - are working with each other to build the CMS particle detector, which is right now undergoing tests before installation in an experimental hall about 328 feet underground. The tests space being brought out through a complete slice that the CMS detector, including all its subsystems.
"After recording 30 million tracks from cosmic ray particles," stated CMS spokesman Michel Della Negra the CERN, "all systems space working really well, and also we"re looking front to first collisions in the LHC following year."
The CMS magnet has actually two distinct characteristics: its strong magnetic field and the uniformity of its ar over a big volume.
"This magnet is the main device around which the entire experiment is built," claimed Fermilab"s Dan Green, Research project Manager because that US/CMS. "This check is a an excellent success, and the entire process has gone an extremely smoothly."
The university of Wisconsin in ~ Madison, a US/CMS member, designed the magnet"s stole return yoke because that the detector endcap. Fermilab gave the superconductor cable, together with aluminum matrix and stabilizing aluminum for the superconductor wire coil. The aluminum is necessary to safeguard the coil against quenches by transporting warmth away from the conductor. In addition, Fermilab engineered a strengthening of the cryostat supporting the hadron calorimeter, i m sorry tracks bit collisions and also was also supplied by the US; and also designed the magnetic ar mapper, which uses detailed and also accurate measurement of the ar in 3 dimensions. The dimensions are essential to check the design, and administer input to the tracking come accurately determine particle momenta. Green said the ar mapper would certainly be starting up soon.
CMS magnet construction was authorized in 1996, and also began in earnest in 1998. Through 2002, fabrication of the superconducting cable was complete. Winding the cable to produce the solenoid coil began in 2000 and took five years to achieve. Through the end of 2005, the solenoid was all set for testing, and also in February this year, it to be cooled under to its operating temperature of about -269 levels Celsius. Following the insertion of bit detectors, trial and error started in ~ the finish of July.
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The magnet is a usual project in which every one of CMS"s 155 institutes have actually taken part, with significant contributions do by the room of Energy"s Fermilab and the college of Wisconsin in US/CMS; the French Atomic energy Commission in Saclay (CEA); CERN, the Swiss federal Polytechnic academy in Zurich (ETHZ); the Italian nationwide Institute of atom wgc2010.orgics (INFN) in Genoa, and also the Russian Institute because that Theoretical and Experimental wgc2010.orgics (ITEP) in Moscow.