Gallium

Element 31 of Periodic table is Gallium with atomic number 31, atomic weight 69.723. Gallium, symbol Ga, has a Base Centered Orthorhombic structure and Silver color. Gallium is a post-transition metal element. Trivial name of Gallium is triels, icosagens. Know everything about Gallium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.


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Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31. Elemental gallium does not occur in free form in nature, but as the gallium(III) compounds that are in trace amounts in zinc ores and in bauxite. Gallium is a soft, silvery metal, and elemental gallium is a brittle solid at low temperatures, and melts at 29.76 °C (85.57 °F) (slightly above room temperature).

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Gallium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Gallium

Name Gallium
Atomic Number 31
Atomic Symbol Ga
Atomic Weight 69.723
Phase Solid
Color Silver
Classification post-transition metal
Group in Periodic Table 13
Group Name boron family
Period in Periodic Table 4
Block in Periodic Table p-block
Electronic Configuration 3d10 4s2 4p1
Melting Point 29.76 °C
Boiling Point 2204 °C
Electronic Shell Structure <2, 8, 18, 3>
CAS Number CAS7440-55-3

Neighborhood
13
Al
14
Si
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
Lanthanides
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
Actinide
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

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How to Locate Gallium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 31 to find Gallium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Gallium on periodic table look for cross section of group 13 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

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Table of Contents


History
Abundance
Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & Orbital Properties
Chemical Properties
Isotopes
Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Databases
Compare Gallium with other elements

Gallium History

The element Gallium was discovered by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in year 1875 in France . Gallium derived its name from Gallia, the Latin name for France

Gallium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Gallium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth"s Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 1×10-6%
Abundance in Sun 4×10-6%
Abundance in Meteorites 7.6e-06
Abundance in Earth"s Crust 1.9e-05
Abundance in Oceans 3×10-9%
Abundance in Humans N/A

Crystal Structure of Gallium

The solid state structure of Gallium is Base Centered Orthorhombic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
451.97 766.33 452.6 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Cmca
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Space Group Number 64
Crystal Structure Base Centered Orthorhombic

Gallium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Gallium atoms have 31 electrons and the electronic shell structure is <2, 8, 18, 3> with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P1/2.


Atomic Number 31
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 31
Number of Protons 31
Mass Number 70
Number of Neutrons 39
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) <2, 8, 18, 3>
Electron Configuration 3d10 4s2 4p1
Valence Electrons 4s2 4p1
Oxidation State -5;-4;-2;-1 1;2;3
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P1/2

Shell Structure of Gallium - Electrons per energy level


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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Gallium - neutral Gallium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Gallium atom is 3d10 4s2 4p1. The portion of Gallium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as . For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d10 4s2 4p1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

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Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Gallium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Gallium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p1

Atomic Structure of Gallium

Gallium atomic radius is 136 pm, while it"s covalent radius is 126 pm.

Atomic Radius

136 pm (1.36 Å)

Atomic Volume 11.8094512195 cm3
Covalent Radius 126 pm (1.26 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 187 pm
Neutron Cross Section 2.9 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Gallium

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Gallium Chemical Properties: Gallium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Gallium is 28.9 kJ/mol

Valence 3
Electronegativity 1.81
ElectronAffinity 28.9 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Gallium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Gallium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 578.8
2 1979.3
3 2963
4 6180

Gallium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Gallium Physical Properties

Density 5.904 g/cm3
Molar Volume 11.8094512195 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus N/A
Shear Modulus N/A
Bulk Modulus N/A
Poisson Ratio N/A

Hardness of Gallium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 1.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness 60 MPa

Gallium Electrical Properties

Gallium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Gallium

Electrical Conductivity 7.1×106 S/m
Resistivity 1.4×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point 1.083

Gallium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 29 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.00012 K-1

Gallium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -3×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -2.09×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -1.77e-05

Optical Properties of Gallium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Gallium

Speed of Sound 2740 m/s

Gallium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Gallium

Melting Point 302.91 K (29.76 °C)
Boiling Point 2477 K (2204 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point 1.083

Enthalpies of Gallium

Heat of Fusion 5.59 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 256 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Gallium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Gallium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Gallium has 2 stable isotope - 69Ga, 71Ga.


Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
56Ga
57Ga
58Ga
59Ga
60Ga
61Ga
62Ga
63Ga
64Ga
65Ga
66Ga
67Ga
68Ga
69Ga 60.108% Stable N/A
70Ga
71Ga 39.892% Stable N/A
72Ga
73Ga
74Ga
75Ga
76Ga
77Ga
78Ga
79Ga
80Ga
81Ga
82Ga
83Ga
84Ga
85Ga
86Ga

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-55-3
RTECS Number RTECSLW8600000
DOT Hazard Class 8
DOT Numbers 2803
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 1
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-55-3
CID Number CID5360835
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSLW8600000

Compare Gallium with all Group 13 elements

Gallium vs Boron Gallium vs Aluminium Gallium vs Indium Gallium vs Thallium Gallium vs Nihonium

Compare Gallium with all post-transition metal elements

Gallium vs Aluminium Gallium vs Indium Gallium vs Tin Gallium vs Thallium Gallium vs Lead Gallium vs Bismuth Gallium vs Nihonium Gallium vs Flerovium Gallium vs Moscovium Gallium vs Livermorium