A. BRACHIOCEPHALIC ARTERYB. SUPERIOR VENA CAVAC. RIGHT PULMONARY ARTERYD. ASCENDING AORTAE. PULMONARY TRUNKF. RIGHT PULMONARY VEINS


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G. RIGHT ATRIUMH. RIGHT CORONARY ARTERYI. ANTERIOR CARDIAC VEINJ. RIGHT VENTRICLEK. INFERIOR VENA CAVAL. LEFT COMMON CAROTID ARTERY


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M. LEFT SUBCLAVIAN ARTERYN. AORTIC ARCHO. LIGAMENTUM ARTERIOSUMP. LEFT PULMONARY ARTERYQ. LEFT PULMONARY VEINSR. LEFT ATRIUM


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S. CIRCUMFLEX ARTERYT. LEFT CORONARY ARTERYU. LEFT VENTRICLEV. GREAT CARDIAC VEINW. ANTERIOR INTERVENTRICULAR ARTERYX. APEX OF HEART


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FLUID IN THE PERICARDIAL SAC ALLOWS THE HEART TO BEAT IN A RELATIVELY FRICTIONLESS ENVIRONMENT. TO REDUCE FRICTION DURING HEART ACTIVITY.

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A SIMPLE SCHEMATIC OF GENERAL CIRCULATION IS SHOWN. WHAT PART OF THE CIRCULATION IS MISSING FROM THIS DIAGRAM? ____1_____ ADD TO THE DIAGRAM AS BEST YOU CAN TO MAKE IT DEPICT A COMPLETE SYSTEMIC/PULMONARY CIRCULATION. LABEL THE SYSTEMIC AND PULMONARY CIRCULATION


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DURING THE SHEEP HEART DISSECTION, YOU WERE ASKED INITIALLY TO IDENTIFY THE RIGHT AND LEFT VENTRICLES WITHOUT CUTTING INTO THE HEART. DURING THIS PROCEDURE, WHAT DIFFERENCES DID YOU OBSERVE BETWEEN THE TWO CHAMBERS?


THERES A GREATER DEMAND ON THE LONGER SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION (L. VENTRICLE) AND HAS A HIGHER RESISTANCE THEN THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION (R. VENTRICLE)


KNOWING THAT STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION ARE RELATED, HOW WOULD YOU SAY THIS STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCE REFLECTS THE RELATIVE FUNCTIONS OF THESE TWO HEART CHAMBERS?


SEMILUNAR VALVES PREVENT BACKFLOW INTO THE __1__; MITRAL AND TRICUSPID VALVES PREVENT BACK-FLOW INTO THE __2__.


THE MITRAL VALVE (ANCHORD TO CHORDAE TENDINEAE) ALLOWS THE BLOOD TO FLOW FROM THE LEFT ATRIUM INTO LEFT VENTRICLE, TRICUSPID VALVE STOPS BACKFLOW OF BLOOD BETWEEN THE TWO (MITRAL AND TRICUSPID VALVES). THE SEMILUNAR VALVES (DONT HAVE CHORDAE TENDINEAE)PERMIT BLOOD TO BE FOCED INTO THE ARTERIES BUT PREVENT BACKFLOW OF BLOOD FROM THE ARTERIES INTO THE VENTRICLES


USING YOUR OWN OBSERVATIONS; EXPLAIN HOW THE OPERATION OF THE SEMILUNAR VALVES DIFFERS FROM THAT OF THE MITRAL AND TRICUSPID VALVES.


LIGAMENTUM ARTERIOSUM- CALLED (DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS) IN FETAL HEART, LOCATED BETWEEN PULMONARY TRUNK AND AORTIC ARCH. IN ADULTS LIGAMENT THERE NOW. ALLOWS BLOOD TO FLOW FROM THE PULMONARY TRUNK TO SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION.FOSSA OVALIS - CALLED (FORAMEN OVALE) IN FETAL HEART, LOCATED ON RIGHT ATRIUM WALL (ALSO WALL OF RIGHT VENTRICLE). ALLOWED BLOOD TO ENTER THE LEFT ATRIUM FROM THE RIGHT ATRIUM.


TWO REMNANTS OF FETAL STRUCTURES ARE OBSERVABLE IN THE HEART - THE LIGAMENTUM ARTERIOSUM AND THE FOSSA OVALIS. WHAT WERE THEY CALLED IN THE FETAL HEART, WHERE WAS EACH LOCATED, AND WHAT COMMON PURPOSE DID THEY SERVE AS FUNCTIONING FETAL STRUCTURES?


DIFFERENCE IS THAT PULMONARY CIRCULATION IS STRICTLY TO PROVIDE GAS EXCHANGE IN THE LUNGS; WHEREAS THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION PROVIDES THE FUNCTIONAL BLOOD SUPPLY TO ALL BODY TISSUES.


1. RIGHT VENTRICLE2. PULMONARY SEMILUNAR3. PULMONARY ARTERIES4. PULMONARY VEINS5. LEFT ATRIUM6. BICUSPID (MITRAL)7. LEFT VENTRICLE8. AORTIC SEMILUNAR9. AORTA10. CAPILLARY BEDS (BODY & HEART)11. SUPERIOR VENA CAVA12. INFERIOR VENA CAVA13. CORONARY SINUS & CARDIAC VEINS


CIRCULATION OF A RED BLOOD CELL IN THE HUMAN BODY:RIGHT ATRIUM THROUGH THE TRICUSPID VALVE TO THE __1__, THROUGH THE __2__ VALVE TO THE PULMONARY TRUNK, TO THE __3__, TO THE CAPILLARY BEDS OF THE LUNGS, TO THE __4__, TO THE __5__ OF THE HEART, THROUGH THE __6__ VALVE TO THE __7__, THROUGH THE __8__ VALVE TO THE __9__, TO THE SYSTEMIC ARTERIES, TO THE __10__ OF THE TISSUES, TO THE SYSTEMIC VEINS, TO THE __11__, __12__, AND __13__ ENTERING THE RIGHT ATRIUM OF THE HEART.


A THROMBUS IN THE CORONARY ARTERY CAN CUT OFF THE BLOOD SUPPLY TO THE HEART, RESULTING IN THE VERY RAPID DEATH.

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WHY MIGHT A THROMBUS (BLOOD CLOT) IN THE ANTERIOR DESCENDING BRANCH OF THE LEFT CORONARY ARTERY CAUSE SUDDEN DEATH?


SKELETAL MUSCLE IS LONG, SYLINDRICAL, MULTINUCLEATED CELLS AND HAS OBVIOUS STRIATIONS. BUT CARDIAC MUSCLES ARE BRANCHING, STRIATED, HAVE USUALLY UNI-NUCLEATED CELLS THAT INTERDIGITATE AT THE JUNCTIONS (INTERCALATED DISCS)


THE UNIQUE FEATURE IS THE INTERCALATED DISCS. THE INTERCALATED DISCS HAVE TWO IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS: 1. IT HOLDS THE MYOCYTES TOGETHER SO THAT THEY DO NOT PULL APART WHEN THE HEART CONTRACTS; 2. IS TO ALLOW AN ELECTRICAL CONNECTION BETWEEN THE CELLS, WHICH IS VITAL TO THE FUNCTION OF THE HEART AS A WHOLE. ALSO HAS MANY MITOCHONDRIA THAT PROVIDE ENERGY REQUIRED FOR CONTRACTION.


DESCRIBE THE UNIQUE ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF CARDIAC MUSCLE. WHAT ROLE DOES THE UNIQUE STRUCTURE OF CARDIAC MUSCLE PLAY IN ITS FUNCTION?