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Hindu Kush, good mountain mechanism of central Asia. Extensively defined, the is some 500 miles (800 km) long and also as much as 150 miles (240 km) wide.

The Hindu Kush is one of the good watersheds of main Asia, forming part of the substantial Alpine zone the stretches throughout Eurasia from eastern to west. It operation northeast come southwest and divides the valley of the Amu Darya (the ancient Oxus River) come the north from the Indus river valley to the south. Come the east the Hindu Kush buttresses the Pamir range near the allude where the borders of China, Pakistani-controlled Kashmir, and Afghanistan meet, after i m sorry it runs southwest with Pakistan and into Afghanistan, ultimately merging into minor ranges in western Afghanistan. The greatest peak is mount Tirich Mir, i beg your pardon rises near the Pakistan-Afghanistan border come 25,230 feet (7,690 metres).


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Hindu Kush and also Karakoram Range
The Hindu Kush and the Karakoram Range.
Encyclopædia wgc2010.org, Inc.

It was v the high passes of the Hindu Kush in around 1500 bce that invaders from main Asia carried their Indo-European language—a forerunner that the Indo-Iranian languages spoken throughout the region today. Historically, the passes have been of great military significance, providing accessibility to the north plains the India for such conquerors as Alexander the Great, the king the Macedonia; the Mongols Genghis Khan and Timur (Tamerlane); and also their descendant Bābur, the an initial Mughal emperor. Throughout the duration of the british raj in India, the Indian federal government was keenly came to with the security both of this passes and of an associated physical feature to the south, the Khyber Pass. The Hindu Kush selection has rarely made up the frontier between major powers but has normally formed part of an intermediary buffer zone. The faster known intake of the name Hindu Kush occurs on a map published around 1000 ce.

Physical features

The eastern limit of the Hindu Kush is daunting to determine since of a locally complicated topography, although the Karambar happen (14,250 feet <4,343 metres>) between the valleys of the Konar (called the Kunar or Chitral in Pakistan) and also Gilgit rivers may be tentatively accepted as the boundary. The western limit additionally is uncertain, as the mountains lose height and fan out into minor ranges in Afghanistan. Geologists, however, take into consideration the Hindu Kush variety to expand much furthermore west to the Iranian border.


Physiography

The Hindu Kush may be separated into three key sections: the east Hindu Kush, which runs from the Karambar pass in the eastern to the Dorāh (Do Rāh) happen (14,940 feet <4,554 metres>) not much from mountain Tirich Mir; the main Hindu Kush, i m sorry then continues to the Shebar (Shībar) happen (9,800 feet <2,987 metres>) to the northwest that Kabul; and the west Hindu Kush, additionally known together the Bābā hills (Kūh-e Bābā), which slowly descends to the Kermū Pass.

In its too much eastern section, between the passes of Karambar and also Baroghil (Barowghīl; 12,480 feet <3,804 metres>), the eastern Hindu Kush is not very high and has mountains that often take the type of rounded domes. Farther come the west the key ridge rises promptly to Baba Tangi (21,368 feet <6,513 metres>) and also becomes rugged, after which, within the room of about 100 miles (160 km), are focused the greatest mountains that the whole region—about 2 dozen summits of more than 23,000 feet (7,000 metres) in elevation. A first cluster of high peaks around Urgand (23,094 feet <7,039 metres>), in Afghanistan, is followed farther south by the massif (principal hill mass) the Saraghrara (24,111 feet <7,349 metres>). An additional line the imposing mountains, which consists of Mounts Langar (23,162 feet <7,060 metres>), Shachaur (23,346 feet <7,116 metres>), Udrem Zom (23,376 feet <7,125 metres>), and also Nādīr Shāh Zhāra (23,376 feet <7,125 metres>), leads to the three large mountains the the Hindu Kush, which room Mounts Noshaq (Nowshāk; 24,557 feet <7,485 metres>), Istoro Nal (24,242 feet <7,389 metres>), and also Tirich Mir. Most major glaciers that the Hindu Kush—among lock Kotgaz, Niroghi, Atrak, and also Tirich—are in the valleys that this section.

The main section native the Dorāh pass to the Shebar happen separates the traditional Afghan regions of Badakhshān come the north and also Nūrestān and also Kūhestān (Kohistan) around the top Kābul flow to the south. The concentration that high summits in this region creates from some vantage points the illustration of an unbroken horizon, a phenomenon well-known as Gipfelflur (German: “summit plain”). Preferably heights, i beg your pardon are lower than those in the eastern section, incorporate Koh-i-Bandakor (22,451 feet <6,843 metres>), Koh-i-Mondi (20,498 feet <6,248 metres>), and also Mīr Samīr (19,878 feet <6,059 metres>). These peaks space surrounded by a organize of lesser mountains. Glaciers room poorly developed, however the mountain passes—which incorporate Putsigrām (13,450 feet <5,000 metres>), Verān (15,400 feet <4,694 metres>), Rām Gol (15,400 feet <4,694 metres>), and also Anjoman (13,850 feet <4,221 metres>)—are high, do transmontane communications difficult.

The hills of the western an ar fan out slowly toward the Afghan city the Herāt, near the Iranian border, decreasing into hills that lesser importance. Communication is less complicated in this region, as roads have long due to the fact that been developed through the passes, such together the Shebar happen (9,800 feet <2,987 metres>).

A broader definition of the Hindu Kush would include a fourth region known as Hindu Raj in Pakistan. This region is created by a long, winding chain of mountains—with part lofty peaks, such as Mounts Darkot (22,447 feet <6,842 metres>) and Buni Zom (21,499 feet <6,553 metres>)—which strikes southward indigenous the Lupsuk optimal (18,861 feet <5,749 metres>) in the eastern region, then proceeds to the Lawarai happen (12,100 feet <3,688 metres>) and also beyond to the Kābul River. If this chain is considered part of the Hindu Kush, then the outlying hills of the Swat Kohistan an ar of Pakistan to the south also kind part that the complex.

International boundaries running through the Hindu Kush are mainly those the Pakistan and Afghanistan. The Karambar happen lies about 40 miles (60 km) west of the Afghan-Chinese border, while to the west the Hindu Kush, strict considered, approaches the border between Afghanistan and also Iran without expanding into Iranian territory. In between these extremes the Pakistan-Afghanistan border follows the key watershed the the Hindu Kush transparent its east region, from Lupsuk Peak simply north the the Karambar pass to the Dorāh Pass just south of mountain Tirich Mir. Not much from the Dorāh happen the boundary pipeline the key watershed and follows young spurs till it the cross the Kābul River, proceeding along the comb of the spin Ghar hills toward the south. The Khyber Pass once was critical strategic gateway because it reduced through the rotate Ghar rather of through the Hindu Kush, hence offering a comparatively straightforward route between the sink of the Kābul and also the plains of Punjab; the pass shed its importance after it was superseded by a an ext accessible pass to the north.

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The erratic boundary line is the an outcome of a collection of compromises reached at the finish of the 19th century in between the British and also the ruler of Afghanistan; called the Durand Line for the british negotiator teacher Mortimer Durand, it has been inherited by the contemporary states of Pakistan and Afghanistan. Another curious configuration established around the very same time and as yet unmodified is the Vākhān region (Wakhan Corridor), a panhandle that Afghan region designed come act together a buffer in between British India and also tsarist Russia.