Key Points

The roman monarchy to be overthrown roughly 509 BCE, throughout a political revolution that brought about the expulsion of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the critical king of Rome.Despite waging a variety of successful campaigns versus Rome’s neighbors, securing Rome’s place as head of the Latin cities, and also engaging in a collection of publicly works, Tarquinius to be a very unpopular king, due to his violence and abuses of power.When word spread out that Tarquinius’s son raped Lucretia, the mam of the governor of Collatia, one uprising developed in which a variety of prominent patricians argued for a change in government.A basic election was held during a legal assembly, and participants vote in favor of the establishment of a roman republic.Subsequently, all Tarquins to be exiled from Rome and also an interrex and also two consuls were created to command the new republic.

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Terms

interrex

Literally, this equates to typical a ruler that presides over the period between the dominance of two different kings; or, in other words, a short-lived regent.

plebeians

A general body of totally free Roman citizens that were component of the lower strata of society.

patricians

A team of ruling course families in old Rome.


The roman monarchy was overthrown roughly 509 BCE, throughout a political transformation that led to the expulsion that Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the last king that Rome. Subsequently, the roman inn Republic was established.

Background

Tarquinius to be the kid of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth king that Rome’s Seven monarchs period. Tarquinius was married to Tullia Minor, the daughter that Servius Tullius, the 6th king of Rome’s Seven queens period. Approximately 535 BCE, Tarquinius and his wife, Tullia Minor, arranged because that the murder of his father-in-law. Tarquinius came to be king adhering to Servius Tullius’s death.

Tarquinius waged a variety of successful campaigns versus Rome’s neighbors, including the Volsci, Gabii, and the Rutuli. He likewise secured Rome’s position as head the the Latin cities, and engaged in a collection of public works, such as the perfect of the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus. However, Tarquinius remained an unpopular king for a variety of reasons. He refused to bury his predecessor and executed a number of leading senators who he suspected continued to be loyal to Servius. Complying with these actions, he refuse to replace the senators that executed and also refused come consult the Senate in problem of federal government going forward, therefore diminishing the size and also influence that the Senate greatly. He likewise went on come judge funding criminal situations without the advice that his counselors, stoking fear among his political enemies that they would be unfair targeted.

The Rape that Lucretia and An Uprising
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Tarquin and also Lucretia. Titian’s Tarquin and also Lucretia (1571).


During Tarquinius’s war with the Rutuli, his son, Sextus Tarquinius, was sent on a army errand come Collatia, wherein he was got with great hospitality in ~ the governor’s mansion. The governor’s wife, Lucretia, organized Sextus while the branch was far at war. During the night, Sextus entered her bedroom and raped her. The next day, Lucretia travel to she father, Spurius Lucretius, a distinguished prefect in Rome, and, prior to witnesses, notified him of what had happened. Due to the fact that her father to be a chef magistrate that Rome, her pleas for justice and vengeance might not be ignored. In ~ the end of her pleas, she stabbed it s her in the heart through a dagger, ultimately dying in her own father’s arms. The step struck those who had witnessed it v such fear that they jointly vowed to publicly protect their liberty against the outrages of such tyrants.

Lucius Junius Brutus, a leading citizen and also the grandson of Rome’s fifth king, Tarquinius Priscus, publicly opened a conflict on the kind of government that Rome should have in ar of the currently monarchy. A variety of patricians attend the debate, in i beg your pardon Brutus suggest the banishment of the Tarquins from all territories of Rome, and also the meeting of one interrex come nominate new magistrates and also to oversee an election of ratification. That was made decision that a republican form of federal government should temporarily change the monarchy, through two consuls instead of the king and also executing the will of a patrician senate. Spurius Lucretius was chosen interrex, and he suggest Brutus, and also Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, a leading citizen that was also related come Tarquinius Priscus, together the an initial two consuls. His choice was validated by the comitia curiata, an company of patrician households who mostly ratified decrees the the king.

In order come rally the plebeians to their cause, all were summoned to a legit assembly in the forum, and Lucretia’s body was paraded with the streets. Brutus provided a speech and a general election to be held. The results were in donate of a republic. Brutus left Lucretius in command the the city together interrex, and also pursued the king in Ardea wherein he had actually been positioned through his military on campaign. Tarquinius, however, who had heard of breakthroughs in Rome, fled the camp prior to Brutus arrived, and the military received Brutus favorably, expelling the king sons from their encampment. Tarquinius was consequently refused entry into Rome and lived together an exile v his family.

The facility of the Republic
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Brutus and also Lucretia. The statue mirrors Brutus stop the knife and also swearing the oath, with Lucretia.


Although over there is no scholarly agreement regarding whether or not it in reality took place, Plutarch and Appian both insurance claim that Brutus’s an initial act as consul to be to start an oath for the people, swearing never again to permit a king to dominion Rome. What is recognized for certain is that he replenished the Senate to its original variety of 300 senators, recruiting guys from amongst the equestrian class. The new consuls likewise created a separate office, dubbed the rex sacrorum, to lug out and also oversee spiritual duties, a job that had actually previously fallen come the king.

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The two consuls continued to be elected every year by roman inn citizens and advised by the senate. Both consuls were elected for one-year terms and could veto every other’s actions. Initially, they to be endowed v all the strength of emperors past, though with time these were broken down additional by the enhancement of magistrates to the government system. The an initial magistrate added was the praetor, an office that assumed judicial government from the consuls. After ~ the praetor, the censor to be established, that assumed the power to conduct the roman census.