Physiological parameters, such as heart rate, blood pressure, human body temperature, serum levels of various stress hormones (e.g. Cortisol) and immunological attributes (e.g. Suppression that lymphocyte activity) deserve to be provided to assess welfare.1 measure up of plenty of of these parameters needs invasive monitoring techniques. However, where instrumentation, such together a heart rate transmitter, has currently been implanted for speculative purposes, data the can assist to assess welfare deserve to be obtained with no extr adverse impacts for the animal.

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Values will certainly fluctuate within ‘normal’ borders for any kind of one animal. Excessive fluctuations room indicative of transforms in welfare state.2 changes may occur due to environmental, husbandry or speculative events. In this cases, comparing measurements in individual pets before and also after the event, or between ‘treated’ and ‘control’ animals, can help to infer even if it is welfare is affected.3 note there is regularly high variance between animals according to, because that example, their age, sex, dominance status and the security of the society group.4

Although relative transforms are often an ext informative 보다 absolute values, that is possible to compare solitary values indigenous individual pets with ‘normal’ arrays for the types published in the literature, or with nest records hosted by the institution. Referral values are provided in the tables below. ‘Normal’ parameter ranges have the right to vary between institutions (e.g. As result of the qualities of the nest animals, and also local techniques for sample collection and also analysis), so the is worthwhile to develop a baseline for her facility. The animals used to produce this baseline have to be in good physical condition (see wellness indicators) and neither pregnant no one lactating (unless in a reproduction facility).

Other sources of information include the APV Nonhuman Primate Formulary and web Primate Aging Database.

Haemodynamic parameters that macaques

For a an ext extensive table, see: Extended table that haemodynamic parameters (Excel download).

Heart rate95 – 235 bpm (mean weight 7.6 kg)120 – 180 bpm (rhesus and cynomolgus)
125 – 240 bpm (mean load 5.3 kg)
Cardiac output500 – 3300 mL/min (mean weight 7.6 kg)
350 – 1700 mL/min (mean load 5.3 kg)
Stroke volume4.7 – 16.7 mL (mean load 7.6 kg)
2.8 – 10.6 mL (mean load 5.3 kg)
Systolic artery pressure68 – 172 mm/Hg (mean load 7.6 kg)
122 – 194 mm/Hg (mean load 5.3 kg)
Diastolic artery pressure60 – 108 mm/Hg (mean load 7.6 kg)
81 – 121 mm/Hg (mean load 5.3 kg)
Arterial pH7.2 – 7.487.36 – 7.42 (rhesus)
Venous pH7.34 – 7.54
Blood volume44.3 – 66.6 mL/kg
Plasma volume30 – 48.4 mL/kg
Extracellular fluid volume121 – 295 mL/kg
Total blood water628 – 721 mL/kg
Whole blood haemoglobin11.2 – 14.6 gm/100mL12 – 13.1 g/dl (rhesus)
11 – 12.4 (cynomolgus)
Haematocrit38 – 45%38.3 – 49.6 (rhesus)
33.1 -37.5 (cynomolgus)
Temperature37.8 – 39 oC38.7 -39.8 (rhesus)
38.7 – 39.8 (cynomolgus)

A Rhesus macaques: Max Planck institute for biological Cybernetics

B Primate commodities Inc.

Respiratory parameters the macaques

MeasurementParameters A
Dead space7 – 26 mL
Lung compliance9 – 27 mL/mmHg
Respiratory quotient76 – 78%
Tidal volume28 – 65 mL
Respiration rate27 – 56 1/min
Minute volume756 – 3640 mL/min
Arterial O2 saturation85 – 93%
Arterial O2 content14 – 18% volume
Arterial O2 tension65 – 94 mmHg
Arterial CO2 content50 – 67% volume
Arterial CO2 tension28 – 42 mmHg
Arterial-venous O2 difference4.5- 6%
O2 consumption55 – 85 mL/min (weight 3 – 4.5 kg)

A: Rhesus macaques: Max Planck academy for biological Cybernetics

Blood test values of macaques

(Reproduced indigenous Tasker 2012)

White blood count6.828 x 106/L4.2 – 8.1 x 103/L (rhesus)11.9 x 106/µL
11 – 12.5 x 103/L (cynomolgus)
Red blood count5.511 x 103/L4.95 – 6.4 x106/L (rhesus)3.56 – 6.95 x 106/L6.5 x 106/L
5.3 – 6.3 x106/L (cynomolgus)
Haemoglobin12.589 g/dL71 – 75 fL (rhesus)12.22 g/dL
Mean corpuscular volume72.511 fL59 – 66 fL (cynomolgus)
Mean corpuscular haemoglobin22.878 pg22.8 – 24.5 pg (rhesus)
16.6 – 22.6 pg (cynomolgus)
Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration31.533%31 – 33.4 g/dL (rhesus)
25.8 – 32.8 g/dL (cynomolgus)
Red blood cell circulation width12.857%
Haemoglobin distribution width1.93 g/dL
Platelet blood test290.78 x 103/L
Mean platelet volume9.714 fL
Platelet circulation width39.3%
Neutrophils56.22%26 – 52% (rhesus)5 – 88%
35 – 61% (cynomolgus)
Lymphocytes34.98%39 – 72% (rhesus)38-58%
34 – 56% (cynomolgus)
Monocytes4.92%1 – 4% (rhesus)0 – 11%0.81 x 103/µ L
0.4 – 3% (cynomolgus)
Eosinophils2.94%0 – 4% (rhesus and cynomolgus)0 – 14%0.34 x 103/µ L
Basophils0.2%0 – 0.4% (rhesus)0 – 6%0.034 x 103/µ L
0 – 0.2% (cynomolgus)
Large unstained cells0.744%
Lithium2.058 x 103/µ L
Mean peroxidase index-13.878 x 103/µ L
White blood cabinet FLAGS4666.67
Sodium146.33 mEq/L142 – 149 mEq/L (rhesus)
142 – 150 mEq/L (cynomolgus)
Potassium4.08 mEq/L3.3 – 3.7 mEq/L (rhesus)
3.3 – 3.9 mEq/L (cynomolgus)
Chloride107.17 mEq/L104 – 110 mEq/L (rhesus)
109 – 119 mEq/L (cynomolgus)
Glucose55 mg/dL38 – 89 mg/dL (rhesus)46 – 178 mg/dL
48 – 69 mg/dL (cynomolgus)
Phosphorous5.15 mg/dL1.4 – 6.4 mg/dL (rhesus)
3.8 – 5.4 mg/dL (cynomolgus)
Cholesterol122 – 154 mg/dL (rhesus)108 – 263 mg/dL
106 – 148 mg/dL (cynomolgus)
Calcium9.6 mg/dL8.7 – 10.9 mg/dL (rhesus)
8.5 – 9.3 mg/dL (cynomolgus)
Platelets260 – 361 x 103/µl (rhesus)109 – 597 x 103/mm3430 x 103/µl
300 – 512 x 103/µl (cynomolgus)
Magnesium1.38 – 1.6 mg/dL (rhesus)
Total protein6.4 – 7 g/dL (rhesus)
7.2 – 8 g/dL (cynomolgus)
Serum protein4.9 – 9.3 g/dL
Albumin2.8 – 5.2 g/dL
Globulin1.2 – 5.8 mg/dL
Blood urea nitrogen8 – 40 mg/dL
Total bilirubin0.1 – 2 mg/dL

A Rhesus macaques: Max Planck academy for biological Cybernetics

B Rhesus and cynomolgus macaques: Primate commodities Inc.

C Wolfensohn & Honess (2005) Handbook that Primate Husbandry and Welfare

D Cynomolgus macaques: Schurman and Smith (2005)

E Cynomolgus macaques: Tasker (2012)

Blood varieties of macaques

(Source: Primate products Inc.)

Blood typeRhesusCynomolgus
OLikely presentPresent

Haematology and clinical chemistry parameters and their physiological function

(Reproduced native Tasker 2012)

AbbreviationParameterPhysiological function, uses and other considerations
HBHaemoglobin concentrationFound in erythrocytes and carries oxygen. Helps to evaluate RBC mass.5 used as a measure up of anaemia.6
RBCRed blood cabinet countKnown as erythrocytes. Largest number of cells in the blood. Erythrocyte survival time is approximately 85 – 100 work in macaques.7 effects on erythrocyte parameters frequently reflect a adjust in the balance between RBC production and also RBC loss.8 transforms in plasma volume v dehydration or volume growth can indirectly impact erythrocyte parameters.9
PCVPacked cell volumeMeasure of percent of red blood cell in a sample the spun totality blood.10 offered to calculation the degree of dehydration; the an ext dehydrated, the greater the PCV.11
RETAReticulocytesImmature red blood cells. Develop and mature in bone marrow and circulate because that a short period in blood before emerging into maturation red blood cells. Regular reticulocyte counting is much less than 1% in monkeys.12
RABSAbsolute reticulocytesAs above.
MCVMean cabinet volumeMeasure of median red blood cabinet volume. MCV varies in cynomolgus monkeys depending top top origin; larger in pets of Chinese/Vietnamese origin.13
MCHMean corpuscular haemoglobinThe typical mass that hemoglobin every red blood cabinet in a sample the blood.14
MCHCMean cabinet haemoglobin concentrationMeasure the the concentration of hemoglobin in a given volume of pack red blood cells. MCHC is lower in monkeys than other typically used species in the laboratory.15
HDWHaemoglobin distribution widthMeasure the the heterogeneity the the red cell hemoglobin concentration.
RDWRed cell distribution widthMeasure of the sports of RBC broad (volume).
PLTPlateletsKnown together thrombocytes, castle are necessary for blood coagulation (clotting), as they stimulate vasoconstriction and fibrin formation.16 diminished platelet counting is connected with lengthy bleeding, e.g. From little wounds that venepuncture sites.17
PCTPlatelet distribution
MPVMean platelet volumeMeasure the the mean size the platelets discovered in blood.
PDWPlatelet circulation widthMeasure of variation – an indication of sport in platelet dimension which can be a authorize of active platelet release.
PTProthrombin timeProthrombin is a pre-cursor because that thrombin18 Prothrombin activator splits the enzyme thrombin indigenous Prothrombin. Thrombin is crucial for clotting. Small changes are considered not to it is in biologically meaningful.19
APTTActivated partial thromboplastin timeA measure up of coagulation device by assessing the intrinsic pathway. Responsible for converting prothrombin come thrombin, walk on to transform fibrinogen come fibrin.20 small changes are taken into consideration not to it is in biologically meaningful.21
WBCWhite blood cell countOften termed leukocyte. Normally full white blood cell count is reduced than RBC22 crucial measure of immune function. Excited or frightened pets may have actually physiological leucocytosis (increased WBC count) because of endogenous catecholamine release, concurrently neutrophilia and lymphocytosis have the right to occur.23 The quantitative determination of total and differential (see following row) WBC room included.24
NNeutrophilsMost usual WBC.25 Granular leukocyte (granulocyte). Measure up of immune function. Primary role is phagocytosis of little particles and integral to inflammation. Principal cell form found in peripheral blood.26 Stress-induced leukocyte solution may incorporate mature neutrophila (no immature neutrophils).27
LLymphocytesSecond most typical WBC.28 Non-granular leukocyte. Measure up of immune function. Responsible for a wide selection of immune mechanism functions. Rule cell form found in peripheral blood. Stress-induced leukocyte solution may include lymphopenia (decreased numbers).29
MMonocytesNon-granular leukocyte. Measure of immune function. Primary duty is phagocytosis and ingestion of big particles, procedures antigens and also present them to lymphocytes in a more antigenic form. Usually only present in an extremely low numbers.30 Stress-induced leukocyte solution may encompass monocytosis.31
EEosinophilsGranulocyte. Measure of immune function. Stress-induced leukocyte response may encompass eosinopenia (decreased numbers). Present in low numbers.32
BBasophilsGranulocyte. Normally only existing in an extremely low numbers.33 measure of immune function.34
LUCLarge unstained cellsCells that have not taken increase the stain throughout processing of blood and also blood smears, because of this not red or white blood cells
AbbreviationParameterPhysiological function, uses and also other considerations
ASTAspartate aminotransferaseAST in blood obtained from heart (cardiac muscle) (predominantly), liver, skeleton muscle.35 provided in conjunction with ALT to determine site of wgc2010.organization damage.36
ALTAlanine aminotransferaseALT in blood acquired from liver.37 Highest activity in liver followed by cardiac muscle and kidney.38 deserve to be high because of liver damages or liver cell damage may be markedly raised in animals that struggle during restraint assumed to it is in through secondary iatrogenic muscle injury with handling or intramuscular injection the anaesthetic agents or sedative.39
ALPAlkaline phosphataseMeasurement represents share enzyme task – may be greater in juvenile cultivation animals.40 fairly non-specific enzymes, widely distributed in tissues an overwhelming to analyze changes.41
Gamma GTGammaglutamyltransferaseHighest concentrations discovered in the kidney, pancreas and also liver.42 used as an indicator for cholestasis.
NaSodiumElectrolytes help to maintain liquid balance, pH, membrane potentials, muscular functions and also nerve conduction etc. Sodium is the significant cation in serum and the principal determinant the extracellular liquid volume.43 Potassium is significant intracellular cation, and also is kept in a narrow concentration variety in serum, the is essential for muscle contraction.44
CaCalciumInvolved in neuromuscular activity, bone formation, coagulation.45
IN phosphorousEssential because that cell metabolism.46 similar functions to calcium, but more sensitive renal excretion and may serve as an indicator the renal function.47 levels vary through age; lock are greater in very young animals.
T PROTTotal proteinPlasma proteins consist the Albumins and also Globulins.48 full protein is a measure up of all the various proteins in plasma.49 connected in binding and transport of building materials in the blood. Crucial for keeping osmotic pressure and associated with immunity and disease resistance. Hyperproteinemia is associate with dehydration.50
ALBAlbuminMost numerous plasma protein.51 Functions incorporate binding and transportation of substances, maintaining osmotic pressure and also preventing large fluctuations in pH through acting as a buffer.52 Plasma proteins consisting of Albumin suggest synthetic activity of the liver. Cellular damages reduces protein synthesis and also the levels of plasma protein decreases reflecting chronic liver damage.
GLOBGlobulinHeterogenic collection of proteins with a variety of functions (e.g. Move proteins, convey inflammation, and also immunoglobulins), important for immune function.53
AG RATIOAlbumin/globulinAlbumin/globulin ~ hepatocellular damages (e.g. Liver damage) reduction in Albumin attach by a relative increase in gamma GT producing noticeable effects top top the albumin/globulin ratio.54
TOT CHOLTotal CholesterolCholesterol is a precursor because that steroid hormones.55 essential for cell membranes and a constituent of bile as it is compelled for the biosynthesis of bile acids. Endogenous the is created by the liver.56 Exogenous may be existing in diet. Serum cholesterol is relatively stable.57 Serum cholesterol and also triglycerides may rise with age58
GLUCGlucoseSerum glucose reflects numerous factors; stress and also excitement might produce significant elevations that serum glucose.59 Hyperglycaemia may be as result of stress or feeding the animal prior to venipuncture.60 The exercise of fasting pets prior to venepuncture reportedly decreases the variability the accompanies article ingestion/digestion/intestinal absorption of glucose. (Hall 2007))
UREAUreaUrea nitrogen principally offered to evaluate renal function.61 Urea nitrogen is developed in the liver.62 Urea and creatinine usually filtered native plasma through kidneys and therefore provides an point out of renal clearance.63
T BILITotal bilirubinBilirubin is a malfunction product of heam indigenous RBC destruction.64 The liver is responsible because that metabolising spent RBCs and also conjugating haem65 making the a valuable as one indicator of liver damage.66
HCRECreatinineUsed as an indicator for renal function.67 formed in the muscle. Is a non-protein nitrogenous waste material.68 Creatinine kinase task is highest possible in the bones muscle, cardiac muscle and brain.69 It might be markedly boosted in pets that struggle throughout restraint.70 together a an outcome of secondary iatrogenic muscle injury with dealing with or intramuscular injection that anaesthetic agents or sedatives.
TRIGSTriglyceridesFatty mountain precursors, that have a large number of functions in the human body e.g. In cell membranes.71

Sources of sports in blood parameters by category and with examples for macaques

(Reproduced from Tasker 2012)

A selection of components have been discovered to affect clinical chemistry and haematological blood parameters in macaques.

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References (in alphabetical order; see Tasker 2012): 1: Andrade et al 2004; 2: Bonfanti et al. 2009; 3: Capitanio et al. 1996, 1998; 5: Chen et al. 2002; 6: Drevon-Gailet et al. 2006; 7: Giuletti et al. 1991; 8: Guzman & Radi 2007; 9: room 2007; 10: room & Everds 2003; 11: Hassimoto et al. 2004; 12: Hopper & Cray 2007; 13: Ives & Dack 1956; 14: Kim et al. 2005a; 15: Kim et a.  2005b; 16: Koga et al. 2005; 17: Landi & Kissinger 1994; 18: Lee et al. 2010; 19: Liu et al. 2008; 20: Loeb 1989; 21: Loomis et al. 1980; 22: Lugo-Roman et al. 2009; 23: Mason 1972; 24: Matsumoto et al. 1980; 25: Matsuzawa & Nagai 1994; 26: Matsuzawa et al. 1993; 27: Nam et al. 1998; 28: pace et al.1996; 29: Perretta et al. 1991; 30: Riley & Cornelius 1989; 31: Ruys et al. 2004; 32: Schuurman & blacksmith 2005; 33: Segerstrom & Laudenslager 2009; 34: Sugimoto et al. 1986; 35: Terao 2005; 36: Terao et al. 2002; 37: Verlangieri et al.1985; 38: wall et al. 1985; 39: Wolford et al. 1986; 40: Xia et al. 2009; 41: Yoshida 1981; 42: Yoshida et al. 1987a; 43: Yoshida et al. 1989; 44: Yoshida et al. 1992; 45: Yoshida et al. 1990; 46: Yoshida et al. 1987b; 47: Yoshida et al. 1994; 48: Yoshida et al. 1986a; 49: Zeng et al. 2010.