Define bone, cartilage and also the skeletal systemList and also define the features of the skeletal system

Bone, or osseous tissue, is a hard, thick connective tproblem that creates many of the adult skeleton, the assistance structure of the body. In the locations of the skeleton wbelow bones move (for example, the ribcage and joints), cartilage, a semi-rigid develop of connective tworry, provides adaptability and smooth surfaces for movement. The skeletal system is the body device written of bones and also cartilage and percreates the following instrumental features for the human body:

supports the bodyfacilitates movementprotects internal organsproduces blood cellsstores and also releases minerals and fat

Support, Movement and Protection

Figure 10.1.1. Bones support activity.

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Bones act as levers as soon as muscles expectations a joint and contract. (credit: Benjamin J. DeLong).

The the majority of apparent features of the skeletal system are the gross functions—those visible by monitoring. Sindicate by looking at a perboy, you have the right to see exactly how the bones support, facilitate movement, and protect the humale body.

Just as the steel beams of a building provide a scaffold to assistance its weight, the bones and also cartilage of your skeletal system compose the scaffold that supports the rest of your body. Without the skeletal device, you would be a limp mass of organs, muscle, and also skin.

Bones additionally facilitate activity by serving as points of attachment for your muscles. While some bones just serve as a assistance for the muscles, others additionally transmit the forces created when your muscles contract. From a mechanical allude of watch, bones act as levers and also joints serve as fulcrums (Figure 10.1.1). Unless a muscle spans a joint and also contracts, a bone is not going to move.

Bones additionally defend internal organs from injury by extending or neighboring them. Your ribs safeguard your lungs and also heart, the bones of your vertebral column (spine) protect your spinal cord, and the bones of your cranium (skull) safeguard your brain (Figure 10.1.2).

Figure 10.1.2. Bones safeguard brain. The cranium surrounds and protects the brain from non-traumatic injury.

Career Connection


An orthopaedist is a doctor who specialises in diagnosing and also dealing with disorders and injuries pertained to the musculoskeletal device. Some orthopaedic difficulties have the right to be treated via medicines, exercises, braces, and other tools, but others may be finest treated with surgical treatment (Figure 10.1.3).

While the origin of the word “orthopaedics” (ortho- = “straight”; paed- = “child”), literally implies “straightening of the boy,” orthopaedists deserve to have patients who selection from paediatric to geriatric. In recent years, orthopaedists have also percreated prenatal surgical procedure to correct spina bifida, a congenital defect in which the neural canal in the spine of the foetus stops working to cshed totally during embryologic breakthrough.

Figure 10.1.3. Arm brace. An orthopaedist will certainly sometimes prescribe the use of a brace that reinpressures the underlying bone structure it is being offered to support. (credit: Juhan Sonin).

Orthopaedists generally treat bone and also joint injuries but they likewise treat various other bone conditions including curvature of the spine. Lateral curvatures (scoliosis) can be major enough to slip under the shoulder blade (scapula) forcing it up as a hump. Spinal curvatures can likewise be too much dorsoventrally (kyphosis) causing a hunch earlier and thoracic compression. These curvatures frequently appear in preteenagers as the outcome of poor posture, abnormal development, or indeterminate reasons. Mostly, they are readily treated by orthopaedists. As human being age, gathered spinal column injuries and illness like osteoporosis deserve to likewise lead to curvatures of the spine, hence the stooping you sometimes check out in the elderly.

Some orthopaedists sub-specialise in sports medicine, which addresses both basic injuries, such as a sprained ankle, and also complex injuries, such as a torn rotator cuff in the shoulder. Treatment deserve to array from exercise to surgical procedure. The Australian Orthopaedic Association (AOA) is a not-for-profit organisation that provides specialist education and learning and also training, ensuring high traditional of orthopaedic care, and is a leading authority body that actively supports clinical research and orthopaedic humanitarian initiatives in Australia and also worldwide.

Mineral Storage, Energy Storage and Haematopoiesis

On a metabolic level, bone tworry percreates a number of instrumental features. For one, the bone matrix acts as a reservoir for several minerals important to the functioning of the body, especially calcium and phosphorus. These minerals, included into bone tissue, can be released ago right into the bloodstream to maintain levels needed to support physiological processes. Calcium ions, for instance, are important for muscle contractions and also regulating the circulation of other ions connected in the transmission of nerve impulses.

Bone likewise serves as a site for fat storage and also blood cell manufacturing. The softer connective tworry that fills the inner of a lot of bone is described as bone marrowhead (Figure 10.1.4). Tbelow are 2 types of bone marrow: yellow marrow and red marrow. Yellow marrow includes adipose tissue; the triglycerides stored in the adipocytes of the tconcern deserve to serve as a resource of power. Red marrow is wright here haematopoiesis—the manufacturing of blood cells—takes area. Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are all produced in the red marrow.

Figure 10.1.4. Head of femur showing red and also yellow marrow. The head of the femur has both yellow and also red marrow. Yellow marrowhead stores fat. Red marrow is responsible for haematopoiesis. (credit: change of occupational by “stevenfruitsmaak”/Wikimedia Commons).

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The major features of the bones are body assistance, facilitation of activity, protection of inner organs, storage of minerals and also fat and haematopoiesis. With Each Other, the muscular device and skeletal mechanism are known as the musculoskeletal system.