Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is defined as a clinical disorder in which there is a stenosis or occlusion in the aorta or the arteries that the limbs. Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of PAD in patients >40 year old. Other causes include thrombosis, embolism, vasculitis, fibromuscular dysplasia, entrapment, cystic adventitial disease, and also trauma. The highest possible prevalence the atherosclerotic PAD occurs in the sixth and seventh years of life. As in patients v atherosclerosis the the coronary and cerebral vasculature, over there is an enhanced risk of developing PAD in cigarette smokers and also in persons with diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, or renal insufficiency.You space watching: i beg your pardon statement is accurate concerning reynaud disease?

(See also Chap. 291e) Segmental lesions that cause stenosis or occlusion are usually localized to large and medium-size vessels. The pathology the the lesions has atherosclerotic plaques through calcium deposition, thinning of the media, patchy damage of muscle and elastic fibers, fragmentation that the internal elastic lamina, and also thrombi created of platelets and also fibrin. The primary sites that involvement are the ab aorta and iliac arteries (30% of symptomatic patients), the femoral and popliteal arteries (80–90% of patients), and also the much more distal vessels, including the tibial and peroneal arteries (40–50% the patients). Atherosclerotic lesions occur preferentially in ~ arterial branch points, which room sites of enhanced turbulence, changed shear stress, and also intimal injury. Involvement of the distal vasculature is most common in yonsi individuals and patients with diabetes mellitus.

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Fewer than 50% that patients v PAD space symptomatic, although many have a sluggish or impaired gait. The most typical symptom is intermittent claudication, which is identified as a pain, ache, cramp, numbness, or a feeling of tiredness in the muscles; that occurs during exercise and is relieved through rest. The website of claudication is distal come the place of the occlusive lesion. For example, buttock, hip, thigh, and calf discomfort occurs in patients with aortoiliac disease, vice versa, calf claudication creates in patients through femoral-popliteal disease. Symptoms space far much more common in the lower than in the upper extremities because of the higher incidence that obstructive lesions in the former region. In patients with severe arterial occlusive disease in whom relaxing blood circulation cannot accommodate basal nutritional requirements of the tissues, critical limb ischemia may develop. Patients complain of rest pain or a feeling of cold or numbness in the foot and also toes. Frequently, this symptoms take place at night when the legs space horizontal and also improve once the legs space in a dependency position. With significant ischemia, remainder pain may be persistent.

Important physics findings that PAD include reduced or missing pulses distal come the obstruction, the existence of bruits end the narrowed artery, and muscle atrophy. With an ext severe disease, hair loss, thickened nails, smooth and shiny skin, reduced skin temperature, and also pallor or cyanosis are usual physical signs. In patient with critical limb ischemia, ulcers ...See more: Avatar: The last Airbender The Runaway \", The Runaway your MyAccess file is right now affiliated through \"\" and also is in the procedure of convert affiliations come \"\".

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